University of Oulu

ACS Nano 2022, 16, 3, 3735–3743

1D germanium sulfide van der Waals bicrystals by vapor–liquid–solid growth

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Author: Sutter, Eli1; French, Jacob S.2; Komsa, Hannu-Pekka3;
Organizations: 1Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering and Nebraska Center for Materials and Nanoscience, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588, United States
2Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588, United States
3Faculty of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering, University of Oulu, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: accepted version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 9.2 MB)
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Language: English
Published: American Chemical Society, 2022
Publish Date: 2023-03-24


Defects in two-dimensional and layered materials have attracted interest for realizing properties different from those of perfect crystals. Even stronger links between defect formation, fast growth, and emerging functionality can be found in nanostructures of van der Waals crystals, but only a few prevalent morphologies and defect-controlled synthesis processes have been identified. Here, we show that in vapor–liquid–solid growth of 1D van der Waals nanostructures, the catalyst controls the selection of the predominant (fast-growing) morphologies. Growth of layered GeS over Bi catalysts leads to two coexisting nanostructure types: chiral nanowires carrying axial screw dislocations and bicrystal nanoribbons where a central twin plane facilitates rapid growth. While Au catalysts produce exclusively dislocated nanowires, their modification with an additive triggers a switch to twinned bicrystal ribbons. Nanoscale spectroscopy shows that, while supporting fast growth, the twin defects in the distinctive layered bicrystals are electronically benign and free of nonradiative recombination centers.

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Series: ACS nano
ISSN: 1936-0851
ISSN-E: 1936-086X
ISSN-L: 1936-0851
Volume: 16
Issue: 3
Pages: 3735 - 3743
DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.1c07349
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 116 Chemical sciences
221 Nanotechnology
Funding: This work was supported by the National Science Foundation, Division of Materials Research, Solid State and Materials Chemistry Program under Grant No. DMR-1904843.
Copyright information: This document is the Accepted Manuscript version of a Published Work that appeared in final form in Acs nano, copyright © 2022 American Chemical Society after peer review and technical editing by the publisher. To access the final edited and published work see