University of Oulu

Rodrigues, M., De Castro Mendes, F., Paciência, I., Cavaleiro Rufo, J., Silva, D., Delgado, L., Moreira, A., & Moreira, P. (2023). Diet quality and exhaled breath condensate markers in a sample of school-aged children. Children, 10(2), 263.

Diet quality and exhaled breath condensate markers in a sample of school-aged children

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Author: Rodrigues, Mónica1; de Castro Mendes, Francisca2,3; Paciência, Inês4,5;
Organizations: 1Faculty of Nutrition and Food Sciences, University of Porto, 4150-180 Porto, Portugal
2Basic and Clinical Immunology, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, 4200-31 Porto, Portugal
3Epidemiology Research Unit and Laboratory for Integrative and Translational Research in Population Health, Institute of Public Health, University of Porto, 4050-600 Porto, Portugal
4Center for Environmental and Respiratory Health Research (CERH), Population Health, University of Oulu, 90014 Oulu, Finland
5Biocentur Oulu, University of Oulu, 90014 Oulu, Finland
6Immuno-Allergology Department, Centro Hospitalar São João, 4200-319 Porto, Portugal
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 1 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2023
Publish Date: 2023-03-27


Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) analysis is a recently developed, non-invasive method used to identify and quantify biomarkers, mainly those coming from the lower respiratory tract. It seems that diet can influence the airway’s inflammation and change the exhaled breath composition. This study aimed to assess the association between diet quality intake and markers in EBC among school-aged children. A cross-sectional analysis included 150 children (48.3% females, aged 7–12 years, mean age: 8.7 ± 0.8 years) from 20 schools across Porto, Portugal. We assessed diet quality through the Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2015, which was estimated based on a single 24 h food recall questionnaire. EBC samples were collected, and we assessed their ionic content (Na+, K+) and conductivity. The association between diet quality and Na+, K+, Na+/K+ ratio and conductivity was estimated using logistic regression models adjusted for potential confounders. After adjustment, a higher quality diet score increases the odds of higher conductivity values of the EBC (aOR = 1.04, 95%CI 1.00; 1.08). Our findings suggest that a higher diet quality in school-aged children is associated with higher conductivity levels of the EBC.

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Series: Children
ISSN: 2227-9067
ISSN-E: 2227-9067
ISSN-L: 2227-9067
Volume: 10
Issue: 2
Article number: 263
DOI: 10.3390/children10020263
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 3123 Gynaecology and paediatrics
3121 General medicine, internal medicine and other clinical medicine
Funding: This research was funded by Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia through the Project NORTE-01-0145-FEDER-000010-Health, Comfort and Energy in the Built Environment (HEBE), cofinanced by Programa Operacional Regional do Norte (NORTE2020), through Fundo Europeu de Desenvolvimento Regional (FEDER) and EXALAR 21 project financed by FEDER/FNR and by Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia (EXALAR 21 02/SAICT/2017-Project n° 30193).
Copyright information: © 2023 by the authors. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (