University of Oulu

ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2022, 14, 43, 48897–48906

Design and fabrication of a C-band dielectric resonator antenna with novel temperature-stable Ce(Nb1–xVx)NbO₄ (x = 0–0.4) microwave ceramics

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Author: Wu, Fang-Fang1,2; Zhou, Di1; Du, Chao1;
Organizations: 1Electronic Materials Research Laboratory, Key Laboratory of Multifunctional Materials and Structures, Ministry of Education, School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi710049, People’s Republic of China
2Microelectronics Research Unit, University of Oulu, Post Office Box 4500, FI-90014Oulu, Finland
3State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behaviour of Materials, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi710049, People’s Republic of China
4Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Al-Geish Street, Tanta31527, Egypt
5School of Electronic and Information Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang310018, People’s Republic of China
6Functional Materials and Devices Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Sheffield, SheffieldS1 3JD, United Kingdom
Format: article
Version: accepted version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 4.2 MB)
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Language: English
Published: American Chemical Society, 2022
Publish Date: 2023-10-21


Vanadium(V)-substituted cerium niobate [Ce(Nb1–xVx)O₄, CNVx] ceramics were prepared to explore their structure–microwave (MW) property relations and application in C-band dielectric resonator antennas (DRAs). X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy revealed that CNVx (0.0 ≤ x ≤ 0.4) ceramics exhibited a ferroelastic phase transition at a critical content of V (xc = 0.3) from a monoclinic fergusonite structure to a tetragonal scheelite structure (TF–S), which decreased in temperature as a function of x according to thermal expansion analysis. Optimum microwave dielectric performance was obtained for CNV0.3 with permittivity (εr) of ∼16.81, microwave quality factor (Qf) of ∼41 300 GHz (at ∼8.7 GHz), and temperature coefficient of the resonant frequency (TCF) of ∼ –3.5 ppm/°C. εr is dominated by Ce–O phonon absorption in the microwave band; Qf is mainly determined by the porosity, grain size, and proximity of TF–S; and TCF is controlled by the structural distortions associated with TF–S. Terahertz (THz) (0.20–2.00 THz, εr ∼ 12.52 ± 0.70, and tan δ ∼ 0.39 ± 0.17) and infrared measurements are consistent, demonstrating that CNVx (0.0 ≤ x ≤ 0.4) ceramics are effective in the sub-millimeter as well as MW regime. A cylindrical DRA prototype antenna fabricated from CNV0.3 resonated at 7.02 GHz (|S₁₁| = −28.8 dB), matching simulations, with >90% radiation efficiency and 3.34–5.93 dB gain.

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Series: ACS applied materials & interfaces
ISSN: 1944-8244
ISSN-E: 1944-8252
ISSN-L: 1944-8244
Volume: 14
Issue: 43
Pages: 48897 - 48906
DOI: 10.1021/acsami.2c14627
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 216 Materials engineering
213 Electronic, automation and communications engineering, electronics
Funding: This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (51972260 and 52072295), the International Cooperation Project of Shaanxi Province (2021KWZ-10), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central University, and the 111 Project of China (B14040). The authors thank the administrators in the IR beamline workstation (BL01B) of the National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) for their help in the IR measurement and fitting. Scanning electron microscopy was carried out at the International Center for Dielectric Research (ICDR), Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, China. The authors thank Yan-Zhu Dai for the help in using SEM. The work on the project by Professor Reaney relates to Engineering and Physical Science Research Council Grants EP/L017563/1 and EP/N010493/1.
Copyright information: This document is the Accepted Manuscript version of a Published Work that appeared in final form in Acs applied materials and interfaces, copyright © 2022 American Chemical Society after peer review and technical editing by the publisher. To access the final edited and published work see