University of Oulu

Rotov, A.Y., Romanov, I.S., Tarakanchikova, Y.V. et al. Application Prospects for Synthetic Nanoparticles in Optogenetic Retinal Prosthetics. J Evol Biochem Phys 57, 1333–1350 (2021).

Application prospects for synthetic nanoparticles in optogenetic retinal prosthetics

Saved in:
Author: Rotov, A. Yu.1; Romanov, I. S.1; Tarakanchikova, Y. V.2,3;
Organizations: 1Sechenov Institute of Evolutionary Physiology and Biochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, Russia
2University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
3Alferov St. Petersburg National Research Academic University, St. Petersburg, Russia
Format: article
Version: accepted version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.3 MB)
Persistent link:
Language: English
Published: Pleiades Publishing, 2021
Publish Date: 2023-04-04


Optogenetic prosthetics is an approach to restore visual function in retinal degenerative diseases. It implies the delivery of genes encoding light-sensitive proteins to retinal cells that survived degeneration, primarily bipolar and ganglion cells. As a result, these cells turn into “pseudophotoreceptors” which are able to take on the function of rods and cones lost in disease. The key element of the optogenetic prosthetic procedure is a vector that delivers exogenous DNA to the nucleus of a retinal cell. There are two main categories of vectors: viral and synthetic. The latter include nanoparticles derived from various polymers, lipids and inert metals. Previously, it was believed that viruses transfect living cells more efficiently than their synthetic counterparts due to the presence of specialized gene delivery mechanisms. However, to date, there have been developed nanoparticles that can effectively penetrate through tissue barriers, get into the cell, and successfully deliver nucleic acid molecules to the nucleus. This review addresses the current approaches to the development of nanocarriers and defines the major requirements for their physicochemical properties to ensure most efficient transfer of the genetic material across the intraocular barriers and its delivery to bipolar and ganglion cells. Based on the literature data, several types of nanoparticles have been selected that appear most promising in terms of optogenetic retinal prosthetics.

see all

Series: Journal of evolutionary biochemistry and physiology
ISSN: 0022-0930
ISSN-E: 1608-3202
ISSN-L: 0022-0930
Volume: 57
Issue: 6
Pages: 1333 - 1350
DOI: 10.1134/S0022093021060132
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 1182 Biochemistry, cell and molecular biology
217 Medical engineering
Copyright information: © The Author(s), 2021, published in Rossiiskii Fiziologicheskii Zhurnal imeni I.M. Sechenova, 2021, Vol. 107, No. 11, pp. 1323–1343 This version of the article has been accepted for publication, after peer review (when applicable) and is subject to Springer Nature’s AM terms of use, but is not the Version of Record and does not reflect post-acceptance improvements, or any corrections. The Version of Record is available online at: