University of Oulu

Zhang, ZX., Sanchidrián, J.A., Ouchterlony, F. et al. Reduction of Fragment Size from Mining to Mineral Processing: A Review. Rock Mech Rock Eng 56, 747–778 (2023).

Reduction of fragment size from mining to mineral processing : a review

Saved in:
Author: Zhang, Zong-Xian1; Sanchidrián, José A.2; Ouchterlony, Finn3;
Organizations: 1Oulu Mining School, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
2ETSI Minas y Energía, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid, Spain
3Department of Mining Engineering, Montanuniversitaet Leoben, Leoben, Austria
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 3.7 MB)
Persistent link:
Language: English
Published: Springer Nature, 2023
Publish Date: 2023-04-05


The worldwide mining industry consumes a vast amount of energy in reduction of fragment size from mining to mineral processing with an extremely low-energy efficiency, particularly in ore crushing and grinding. Regarding such a situation, this article describes the effects of rock fragmentation by blasting on the energy consumption, productivity, minerals’ recovery, operational costs in the whole size reduction chain from mining to mineral processing, and the sustainability of mining industry. The main factors that influence rock fragmentation are analysed such as explosive, initiator, rock, and energy distribution including blast design, and the models for predicting rock fragmentation are briefly introduced. In addition, two important issues—fines and ore blending—are shortly presented. Furthermore, the feasibility of achieving an optimum fragmentation (satisfied by a minimum cost from drilling-blasting to crushing-grinding, maximum ore recovery ratio, high productivity, and minimum negative impact on safety and environment) is analysed. The analysis indicates that this feasibility is high. Finally, the measures and challenges for achieving optimum fragmentation are discussed.

see all

Series: Rock mechanics and rock engineering
ISSN: 0723-2632
ISSN-E: 1434-453X
ISSN-L: 0723-2632
Volume: 56
Issue: 1
Pages: 747 - 778
DOI: 10.1007/s00603-022-03068-3
Type of Publication: A2 Review article in a scientific journal
Field of Science: 222 Other engineering and technologies
Funding: This research was supported by University of Oulu in Finland, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid in Spain, and Montanuniversitaet Leoben in Austria. Open Access funding provided by University of Oulu including Oulu University Hospital.
Copyright information: © The Author(s) 2022. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit