University of Oulu

Gyakwaa, F., Alatarvas, T., Shu, Q., & Fabritius, T. (2022). Identifying Oxide and CaS Non-Metallic Inclusions in Steel with Raman Spectroscopy. Metals, 13(1), 43.

Identifying oxide and cas non-metallic inclusions in steel with raman spectroscopy

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Author: Gyakwaa, Francis1; Alatarvas, Tuomas1; Shu, Qifeng1;
Organizations: 1Process Metallurgy Research Unit, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 4300, FI–90014 Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 4 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2023
Publish Date: 2023-04-05


Identification and characterization play an essential role in the study of non-metallic inclusions (NMIs) in monitoring the steel casting process and product quality. This study uses Raman spectroscopy, a versatile, relatively fast, and non-destructive technique for characterizing oxide and sulfide-based inclusion phases in steel samples. The relative Raman peak intensities and positions were used to qualitatively estimate the inclusion phases of Al2O3, CA, C12A7, C3A, MgO·Al2O3, and CaS. For a quantitative estimation, FESEM-EDS (field emission scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy) was used to evaluate the inclusion phases in the samples. This study demonstrates that Raman spectroscopy can be used to rapidly estimate the content of Al2O3, magnesium aluminate spinel (MgO·Al2O3), and the calcium aluminate phases of CA, C3A, and C12A7 in steel samples to complement established characterization techniques for NMIs analysis such as FESEM-EDS.

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Series: Metals
ISSN: 2075-4701
ISSN-E: 2075-4701
ISSN-L: 2075-4701
Volume: 13
Issue: 1
Article number: 43
DOI: 10.3390/met13010043
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 215 Chemical engineering
216 Materials engineering
Copyright information: © 2022 by the authors. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (