University of Oulu

Cao, J., Lam, K.-Y., Lee, L.-H., Liu, X., Hui, P., & Su, X. (2023). Mobile augmented reality: User interfaces, frameworks, and intelligence. ACM Computing Surveys, 55(9), 1–36.

Mobile augmented reality : user interfaces, frameworks, and intelligence

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Author: Cao, Jacky1,2; Lam, Kit-Yung3; Lee, Lik-Hang4;
Organizations: 1University of Oulu, Finland
2Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway
3The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong
4KAIST, Republic of Korea
5University of Helsinki, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 1.6 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Association for Computing Machinery, 2023
Publish Date: 2023-04-05


Mobile Augmented Reality (MAR) integrates computer-generated virtual objects with physical environments for mobile devices. MAR systems enable users to interact with MAR devices, such as smartphones and head-worn wearables, and perform seamless transitions from the physical world to a mixed world with digital entities. These MAR systems support user experiences using MAR devices to provide universal access to digital content. Over the past 20 years, several MAR systems have been developed, however, the studies and design of MAR frameworks have not yet been systematically reviewed from the perspective of user-centric design. This article presents the first effort of surveying existing MAR frameworks (count: 37) and further discusses the latest studies on MAR through a top-down approach: (1) MAR applications; (2) MAR visualisation techniques adaptive to user mobility and contexts; (3) systematic evaluation of MAR frameworks, including supported platforms and corresponding features such as tracking, feature extraction, and sensing capabilities; (4) and underlying machine learning approaches supporting intelligent operations within MAR systems. Finally, we summarise the development of emerging research fields and the current state-of-the-art and discuss the important open challenges and possible theoretical and technical directions. This survey aims to benefit both researchers and MAR system developers alike.

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Series: ACM computing surveys
ISSN: 0360-0300
ISSN-E: 1557-7341
ISSN-L: 0360-0300
Volume: 55
Issue: 9
Article number: 189
DOI: 10.1145/3557999
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 113 Computer and information sciences
Funding: This work is partially funded by Academy of Finland, grant numbers 3196669, 319670, 325774, 326305, and 325570.
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 319670
Detailed Information: 319670 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
326305 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Copyright information: © 2023 the author(s). This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.