University of Oulu

M. Särestöniemi, A. Taparugssanagorn, J. Wisanmongkol, M. Hämäläinen and J. Iinatti, "Comprehensive Analysis of Wireless Capsule Endoscopy Radio Channel Characteristics Using Anatomically Realistic Gastrointestinal Simulation Model," in IEEE Access, vol. 11, pp. 35649-35669, 2023, doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2023.3263555

Comprehensive analysis of wireless capsule endoscopy radio channel characteristics using anatomically realistic gastrointestinal simulation model

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Author: Särestöniemi, Mariella1,2; Taparugssanagorn, Attaphongse3,4; Wisanmongkol, Juthatip3,4;
Organizations: 1Faculty of Medicine, Research Unit of Health Sciences and Technology, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
2Centre for Wireless Communications, Faculty of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
3Telecommunications Academic Program, ICT Department, Asian Institute of Technology, Khlong Nueng, Thailand
4School of Engineering and Technology, Asian Institute of Technology, Khlong Nueng, Thailand
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 3.2 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2023
Publish Date: 2023-04-14


This paper presents a comprehensive study of radio channels related to capsule endoscopy communications in ultra wideband wireless body area networks (UWB-WBAN) utilizing multiple antenna systems. The research includes 363 channel realizations, obtained through simulations using an anatomically realistic human voxel model and a capsule model. A capsule position is modelled in such a way that it moves throughout the entire intestinal tract. The study examines the frequency and time domain characteristics of the channels in various capsule locations, including the most challenging positions deep inside the tissues or far away from most of the antennas. Additionally, the propagation characteristics inside the abdominal tissue are studied by calculating the most obvious propagation paths based on power flow illustrations and reflecting the results with the channel impulse response analysis. The impact of capsule rotation is also studied. It is shown how small changes in capsule location can greatly impact on the channel characteristics if the thickness of the tissues between the capsule and the on-body antenna changes significantly. The paper concludes with statistical analysis of the channel data, including path loss and root mean square (RMS) delay spread. The results provide valuable insight into how the signal propagates inside different parts of the gastrointestinal tract. They show that channel attenuation remains moderate along most of the gastrointestinal tract, and that even the deepest locations in the small intestine area can be resolved with the use of directional on-body antennas and receivers with higher sensitivity.

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Series: IEEE access
ISSN: 2169-3536
ISSN-E: 2169-3536
ISSN-L: 2169-3536
Volume: 11
Pages: 35649 - 35669
DOI: 10.1109/access.2023.3263555
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 217 Medical engineering
213 Electronic, automation and communications engineering, electronics
Funding: This research is partially funded by Academy of Finland Profi6 funding, 6G Enabling Sustainable Society (University of Oulu), the Academy of Finland 6G Flagship (grant 318927) and the European Union’s Horizon 2020 programme under the Marie Sklodowska-Curie grant agreement No. 872752.
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 318927
Detailed Information: 318927 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Copyright information: © The Author(s) 2023. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 License. For more information, see