University of Oulu

J. Laser Appl. 34, 042018 (2022);

Module platform for hybrid PBF-LB manufacturing

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Author: Rautio, Timo1; Mäkikangas, Jarmo1; Mustakangas, Aappo1;
Organizations: 1Future Manufacturing Technologies, University of Oulu, Pajatie 5, Nivala, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: embargoed
Persistent link:
Language: English
Published: Laser Institute of America, 2022
Publish Date: 2023-10-14


This study presents a module platform for additive manufacturing (AM) of parts with the laser powder bed fusion (PBF-LB) technique. The proposed configurable platform enables hybrid manufacturing, because the bulk of the part can be manufactured with traditional methods and the complex part with AM combining the best qualities of both. The main objective was to find a new way of combining manufacturing techniques to reduce costs both in printing and in the postprocessing phase of production. Mechanical testing and microstructural analysis were used to verify the joint quality and strength between the printed part and the sheet metal. PBF-LB manufacturing was experimented directly on 316L and P355GH sheet metal steels, and in both cases, the results showed that the joints did not degrade the material properties. In addition to specimens for tensile testing, parts for a flexural bending machine were manufactured as a proof of concept. The module platform was successfully used to manufacture parts with reduced material cost and printing time, and the print job could be performed without any support structures, obviating the need for post processing. The proposed platform design can be used not only as a new tool for improving the production efficiency of the PBF-LB technique, but also to overcome some of the limitations in part design.

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Series: Journal of laser applications
ISSN: 1042-346X
ISSN-E: 1938-1387
ISSN-L: 1042-346X
Volume: 34
Issue: 4
Article number: 042018
DOI: 10.2351/7.0000722
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 222 Other engineering and technologies
Funding: The authors would like to acknowledge the financial support received from the Council of Oulu Region and the European Union (European Regional Development Fund) for the Hybridi and M3D projects and Business Finland for the DREAMS project.
Copyright information: © 2022 Author(s). This article may be downloaded for personal use only. Any other use requires prior permission of the author and AIP Publishing. This article appeared in J. Laser Appl. 34, 042018 (2022); and may be found at