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Akhlamadi, Golnoosh; Goharshadi, Elaheh K.; Liimatainen, Henrikki. “Ultrahigh Fluid Sorption Capacity of Superhydrophobic and Tough Cryogels of Cross-Linked Cellulose Nanofibers, Cellulose Nanocrystals, and Ti 3 C 2 T x MXene Nanosheets.” Journal of Materials Chemistry A, 2022, 10, 24746–24760.

Ultrahigh fluid sorption capacity of superhydrophobic and tough cryogels of cross-linked cellulose nanofibers, cellulose nanocrystals, and Ti₃C₂Tₓ MXene nanosheets

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Author: Akhlamadi, Golnoosh1,2; Goharshadi, Elaheh K.1,3,4; Liimatainen, Henrikki2
Organizations: 1Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, 9177948974, Iran
2Fiber and Particle Engineering Research Unit, University of Oulu, PO Box 4300, FI-90014, Oulu, Finland
3Nano Research Center, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, 9177948974, Iran
4Micro-Nano Technologies in Renewable Energies Center, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 1.7 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Royal Society of Chemistry, 2022
Publish Date: 2023-04-18


In this study, we present superhydrophobic, hierarchical, and nanostructured cryogels made from a nanocellulose (NC) skeleton comprising cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) and nanocrystals (CNCs), double cross-linked with Ti₃C₂Tₓ MXene nanosheets and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) in the presence of tetradecylamine. Compared to pure CNCs or CNFs, cryogels with a combination of CNCs and CNFs possessed significantly better mechanical performance. Unlike many green natural based nanoporous solids, the prepared mixed cryogels displayed rigid and durable structure, and possessed ultrahigh sorption capacity for several organic fluids, among the highest reported for aerogels/cryogels in the literature. By taking advantage of the synergistic effects of crosslinking between long-entangled CNFs with short-needle-like CNCs as well as the strong interaction between NCs, MXene nanosheets and PVA, highly porous (>92%), lightweight (∼20 mg cm⁻³), and superhydrophobic cryogels with a water contact angle of ∼150° were designed. The hybrid cryogels possessed ultrahigh sorption capacity toward various oils/organic solvents ranging from approximately 110–320 times their weight. The cryogels were reused in more than ten cycles of sorption–squeezing without significantly reducing sorption capacity. Hence, these nanostructured porous solids have a high potential to be used in various purposes in environmental remediation, such as oil spill response and removal of water-insoluble organic solvents.

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Series: Journal of materials chemistry. A, Materials for energy and sustainability
ISSN: 2050-7488
ISSN-E: 2050-7496
ISSN-L: 2050-7488
Volume: 10
Issue: 46
Pages: 24746 - 24760
DOI: 10.1039/d2ta06437e
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 221 Nanotechnology
215 Chemical engineering
216 Materials engineering
Funding: The authors acknowledge the support from the Academy of Finland project "ACNF" (325276). Also, the authors would like to express their gratitude to Ferdowsi University of Mashhad for supporting this project (Grant no. 3/52259).
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 325276
Detailed Information: 325276 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Copyright information: © The Authors 2022. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported Licence.