University of Oulu

Moradi, S., Ferdinando, H., Zienkiewicz, A., Särestöniemi, M., & Myllylä, T. (2022). Measurement of cerebral circulation in human. In A. Scerrati, L. Ricciardi, & F. Dones (Eds.), Cerebral Circulation—Updates on Models, Diagnostics and Treatments of Related Diseases. IntechOpen.

Measurement of cerebral circulation in human

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Author: Moradi, Sadegh1; Ferdinando, Hany2; Zienkiewicz, Aleksandra1;
Organizations: 1Optoelectronics and Measurement Techniques Research Unit, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
2Research unit of Medical Imaging, Physics and Technology, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
3Center for Wireless Communications, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 2 MB)
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Language: English
Published: InTech Open, 2022
Publish Date: 2023-04-19


In this chapter, we review state-of-the-art non-invasive techniques to monitor and study cerebral circulation in humans. The measurement methods can be divided into two categories: direct and indirect methods. Direct methods are mostly based on using contrast agents delivered to blood circulation. Clinically used direct methods include single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), positron emission tomography (PET), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with contrast agents, xenon computed tomography (CT), and arterial spin labeling (ASL) MRI. Indirect techniques are based on measuring physiological parameters reflecting cerebral perfusion. The most commonly used indirect methods are near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD), and phase-contrast MRI. In recent years, few more techniques have been intensively developed, such as diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) and microwave-based techniques, which are still emerging as methods for cerebral circulation monitoring. In addition, methods combining different modalities are discussed and, as a summary, the presented techniques and their benefits for cerebral circulation will be compared.

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ISBN: 978-1-80355-362-7
ISBN Print: 978-1-80355-361-0
DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.10238
Host publication: Cerebral Circulation : Updates on Models, Diagnostics and Treatments of Related Diseases
Host publication editor: Scerrati, A.
Ricciardi, L.
Dones, F.
Type of Publication: A3 Book chapter
Field of Science: 217 Medical engineering
Funding: This work was supported by the Academy of Finland (grant 318347) and Academy of Finland Profi6 funding, 6G-Future Sustainable Society (University of Oulu), and Infotech Oulu.
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 318347
Detailed Information: 318347 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Copyright information: © 2022 The Author(s). Licensee IntechOpen. This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.