University of Oulu

Kalla, A., De Alwis, C., Porambage, P., Gür, G., & Liyanage, M. (2022). A survey on the use of blockchain for future 6G: Technical aspects, use cases, challenges and research directions. Journal of Industrial Information Integration, 30, 100404.

A survey on the use of blockchain for future 6G : technical aspects, use cases, challenges and research directions

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Author: Kalla, Anshuman1; de Alwis, Chamitha2,3; Porambage, Pawani4,5;
Organizations: 1CGPIT, Uka Tarsadia University (UTU), India
2School of Computer Science and Technology, University of Bedfordshire, United Kingdom
3Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Sri Jayewardeneprua, Sri Lanka
4VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Finland
5Centre for Wireless Communications, University of Oulu, Finland
6Institute of Applied Information Technology (InIT), Zurich University of Applied Sciences (ZHAW), Winterthur, Switzerland
7School of Computer Science, University College Dublin, Ireland
Format: article
Version: accepted version
Access: embargoed
Persistent link:
Language: English
Published: Elsevier, 2022
Publish Date: 2024-10-28


While 5G is at the early deployment state around the globe, the research and industrial communities have already started concentrating their efforts on formulating the overall 6G vision comprising requirements, key enabling technologies, performance indicators, and applications. Following the trend, it is evident that 6G will emerge as highly softwarized and open networks allowing the participation of multiple stakeholders. This undoubtedly will make 6G more flexible, agile, autonomous, intelligent, and cost-efficient networks. However, the programmability and openness will make 6G networks more prone to issues like security, privacy, traceability, interoperability, auditability, resource manageability, spectrum efficiency, and 3D mobility. To address these issues, a deep integration of blockchain technology with 6G networks is foreseen. Thus, we aim to put together blockchain and 6G under a magnifying lens to gain a comprehensive understanding of the role of blockchain in the 6G ecosystem. We begin by providing an overview of the envisioned 6G networks and blockchain technology. Next, we present a high-level view of the role of blockchain for 6G trends and requirements. Following that, we conduct an in-depth study on how the blockchain can provide a secure, transparent, and decentralized underpinning to various technical aspects and use cases of 6G. Thereafter, we discuss the deployment challenges to be faced while integrating blockchain in 6G and the possible solutions. Finally, future research directions are expounded to set the floor for further advancements in the blockchainized 6G.

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Series: Journal of industrial information integration
ISSN: 2467-964X
ISSN-E: 2452-414X
ISSN-L: 2467-964X
Volume: 30
Article number: 100404
DOI: 10.1016/j.jii.2022.100404
Type of Publication: A2 Review article in a scientific journal
Field of Science: 213 Electronic, automation and communications engineering, electronics
Funding: This work is partly supported by Academy of Finland under 6Genesis (grant no. 318927) project and Science Foundation Ireland under CONNECT phase 2 (Grant No: 13/RC/2077_P2).
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 318927
Detailed Information: 318927 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Copyright information: © 2022. This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license