University of Oulu

Heikkilä, M.; Suomalainen, J.; Saukko, O.; Kippola, T.; Lähetkangas, K.; Koskela, P.; Kalliovaara, J.; Haapala, H.; Pirttiniemi, J.; Yastrebova, A.; Posti, H. Unmanned Agricultural Tractors in Private Mobile Networks. Network 2022, 2, 1-20.

Unmanned agricultural tractors in private mobile networks

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Author: Heikkilä, Marjo1; Suomalainen, Jani2; Saukko, Ossi1;
Organizations: 1Centria University of Applied Sciences, 84100 Ylivieska, Finland
2VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 02044 Espoo, Finland
3Centre for Wireless Communications, University of Oulu, 90570 Oulu, Finland
4Turku University of Applied Sciences, 20520 Turku, Finland
5JAMK University of Applied Sciences, 43130 Saarijärvi, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 10.1 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2021
Publish Date: 2023-04-26


The need for high-quality communications networks is urgent in data-based farming. A particular challenge is how to achieve reliable, cost-efficient, secure, and broadband last-mile data transfer to enable agricultural machine control. The trialed ad hoc private communications networks built and interconnected with different alternative wireless technologies, including 4G, 5G, satellite and tactical networks, provide interesting practical solutions for connectivity. A remotely controlled tractor is exemplified as a use case of machine control in the demonstrated private communication network. This paper describes the results of a comparative technology analysis and a field trial in a realistic environment. The study includes the practical implementation of video monitoring and the optimization of the control channel for remote-controlled unmanned agricultural tractors. The findings from this study verify and consolidate the requirements for network technologies and for cybersecurity enablers. They highlight insights into the suitability of different wireless technologies for smart farming and tractor scenarios and identify potential paths for future research.

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Series: Network
ISSN: 2673-8732
ISSN-E: 2673-8732
ISSN-L: 2673-8732
Volume: 2
Issue: 1
Pages: 1 - 20
DOI: 10.3390/network2010001
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 213 Electronic, automation and communications engineering, electronics
Funding: This work was supported by Business Finland and the consortium partners of the PRIORITY project. This work was also supported in part by the Academy of Finland 6Genesis Flagship (grant no. 318927).
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 318927
Detailed Information: 318927 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Copyright information: © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license.