University of Oulu

T. Taleb, N. Sehad, Z. Nadir and J. Song, "VR-Based Immersive Service Management in B5G Mobile Systems: A UAV Command and Control Use Case," in IEEE Internet of Things Journal, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 5349-5363, 15 March15, 2023, doi: 10.1109/JIOT.2022.3222282

VR-based immersive service management in B5G mobile systems : a UAV command and control use case

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Author: Taleb, Tarik1,2; Sehad, Nassim3; Nadir, Zinelaabidine3;
Organizations: 1Faculty of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
2Department of Computer and Information Security, Sejong University, Seoul, South Korea
3Department of Communications and Networking, Aalto University, Espoo, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 3.7 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2022
Publish Date: 2023-04-27


The management of remote services, such as remote surgery, remote sensing, or remote driving, has become increasingly important, especially with the emerging 5G and Beyond 5G technologies. However, the strict network requirements of these remote services represent one of the major challenges that hinder their fast and large-scale deployment in critical infrastructures. This article addresses certain issues inherent in remote and immersive control of virtual reality (VR)-based unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), whereby a user remotely controls UAVs, equipped with 360° cameras, using their head-mounted devices (HMD) and their respective controllers. Remote and immersive control services, using 360° video streams, require much lower latency and higher throughput for true immersion and high service reliability. To assess and analyze these requirements, this article introduces a real-life testbed system that leverages different technologies (e.g., VR, 360° video streaming over 4G/5G, and edge computing). In the performance evaluation, different latency types are considered. They are namely: 1) glass-to-glass latency between the 360° camera of a remote UAV and the HMD display; 2) user/pilot’s reaction latency; and 3) the command/execution latency. The obtained results indicate that the responsiveness (dubbed Glass-to-Reaction-to-Execution—GRE–latency) of a pilot, using our system, to a sudden event is within an acceptable range, i.e., around 900 ms.

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Series: IEEE internet of things journal
ISSN: 2372-2541
ISSN-E: 2327-4662
ISSN-L: 2327-4662
Volume: 10
Issue: 6
Pages: 5349 - 5363
DOI: 10.1109/JIOT.2022.3222282
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 213 Electronic, automation and communications engineering, electronics
Funding: This work was supported in part by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Programme through CHARITY Project under Grant 101016509; in part by the Academy of Finland 6Genesis Project under Grant 318927; and in part by the Idea-Mill under Grant 33593. The work of Jaeseung Song was supported by the Technology Innovation Program funded by the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy (MOTIE), South Korea, under Grant RS-2022-00154678.
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 318927
Detailed Information: 318927 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Copyright information: © The Author(s) 2022. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. For more information, see