University of Oulu

Kharbanda, Y., Mailhiot, S., Mankinen, O., Urbańczyk, M., & Telkki, V.-V. (2023). Monitoring cheese ripening by single-sided nuclear magnetic resonance. Journal of Dairy Science, 106(3), 1586–1595.

Monitoring cheese ripening by single-sided nuclear magnetic resonance

Saved in:
Author: Kharbanda, Y.1; Mailhiot, S.1; Mankinen, O.1;
Organizations: 1NMR Research Unit, University of Oulu, 90570 Oulu, Finland
2Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, 01-224 Warsaw, Poland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 2.1 MB)
Persistent link:
Language: English
Published: American Dairy Science Association, 2023
Publish Date: 2023-04-27


The noninvasive, longitudinal study of products and food processing is of interest for the dairy industry. Here, we demonstrated that single-sided nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) can be used for noninvasive monitoring of the cheese ripening process. The maturation of soft-ripened Camembert-like molded cheese samples was monitored for 20 d measuring 1-dimensional and 2-dimensional NMR relaxation and diffusion data at various depths, ranging from the hard surface layer to the soft center. Gelation and gel shrinkage were observed throughout ripening, and a complete loss of free water signal was observed at the cheese rind. Transversal (T₂) relaxation distributions include 3 components that evolve with ripening time and position, corresponding to water inside the casein gel network, water trapped in casein, and fat. Two-dimensional T₁-T₂ relaxation experiments provided enhanced resolution of the 3 components, allowing quantification of the relative proportions of each phase. Furthermore, diffusion (D)-T₂ relaxation correlation experiments revealed the bimodal size distribution of fat globules. The study demonstrated that single-sided NMR can provide spatially resolved signal intensity, relaxation, and diffusion parameters that reflect structural changes during the ripening process and can be exploited to understand and monitor the ripening of cheeses.

see all

Series: Journal of dairy science
ISSN: 0022-0302
ISSN-E: 1525-3198
ISSN-L: 0022-0302
Volume: 106
Issue: 3
Pages: 1586 - 1595
DOI: 10.3168/jds.2022-22458
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 116 Chemical sciences
Funding: Financial support from the European Research Council (Project number 772110), Marie Sklodowska-Curie Actions (grant no. 896824), Academy of Finland (Helsinki, Finland, grant nos. 321701 and 340099), National Science Centre, Poland (Kraków, Poland, grant no. 2021/41/B/ST4/01286), the University of Oulu (Kvantum Institute, Oulu, Finland), and the KAUTE Foundation (Espoo, Finland) is gratefully acknowledged. Part of the work was carried out with the support of the Centre for Material Analysis, University of Oulu, Finland.
EU Grant Number: (772110) UFLNMR - Ultrafast Laplace NMR
(896824) NMRCement - Zero-CO2 cement concept evaluated with novel Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 321701
Detailed Information: 321701 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
340099 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Copyright information: © 2023, The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. and Fass Inc. on behalf of the American Dairy Science Association®. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (