University of Oulu

Khan, A. A., Ahmad, A., Waseem, M., Liang, P., Fahmideh, M., Mikkonen, T., & Abrahamsson, P. (2023). Software architecture for quantum computing systems—A systematic review. Journal of Systems and Software, 201, 111682.

Software architecture for quantum computing systems : a systematic review

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Author: Khan, Arif Ali1; Ahmad, Aakash2; Waseem, Muhammad3;
Organizations: 1M3S Empirical Software Engineering Research Unit, University of Oulu, 90014 Oulu, Finland
2School of Computing and Communications, Lancaster University, Leipzig, Germany
3School of Computer Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China
4School of Business at University of Southern Queensland, Queensland, Australia
5Faculty of Information Technology and Communication Sciences, Tampere University, 33014 Tampere, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 2.2 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Elsevier, 2023
Publish Date: 2023-05-02


Quantum computing systems rely on the principles of quantum mechanics to perform a multitude of computationally challenging tasks more efficiently than their classical counterparts. The architecture of software-intensive systems can empower architects who can leverage architecture-centric processes, practices, description languages to model, develop, and evolve quantum computing software (quantum software for short) at higher abstraction levels. We conducted a Systematic Literature Review (SLR) to investigate (i) architectural process, (ii) modelling notations, (iii) architecture design patterns, (iv) tool support, and (iv) challenging factors for quantum software architecture. Results of the SLR indicate that quantum software represents a new genre of software-intensive systems; however, existing processes and notations can be tailored to derive the architecting activities and develop modelling languages for quantum software. Quantum bits (Qubits) mapped to Quantum gates (Qugates) can be represented as architectural components and connectors that implement quantum software. Tool-chains can incorporate reusable knowledge and human roles (e.g., quantum domain engineers, quantum code developers) to automate and customise the architectural process. Results of this SLR can facilitate researchers and practitioners to develop new hypotheses to be tested, derive reference architectures, and leverage architecture-centric principles and practices to engineer emerging and next generations of quantum software.

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Series: Journal of systems and software
ISSN: 0164-1212
ISSN-E: 1873-1228
ISSN-L: 0164-1212
Volume: 201
Article number: 111682
DOI: 10.1016/j.jss.2023.111682
Type of Publication: A2 Review article in a scientific journal
Field of Science: 113 Computer and information sciences
Funding: This work has been supported by the Academy of Finland (project DEQSE 349945) and Business Finland (project TORQS 8582/31/2022).
Copyright information: © 2023 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (