University of Oulu

Korkiakoski, M., Anagnostopoulos, T., Rajala, O., Sarkiniemi, M., Hirsimaki, M., Kinnunen, J., & Alavesa, P. (2023). Exploring the potential of eeg for real-time interactions in immersive virtual reality. WSEAS TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION SCIENCE AND APPLICATIONS, 20, 98–108.

Exploring the potential of EEG for real-time interactions in immersive virtual reality

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Author: Korkiakoski, Mikko1; Anagnostopoulos, Theodoros2; Rajala, Oskari1;
Organizations: 1Center for Ubiquitous Computing, Faculty of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering, University of Oulu, Pentti Kaiteran Katu1, 90570, Oulu FINLAND
2DigiT.DSS.Lab Department of Business Administration University of West Attica 250 Thivon & P. Ralli Str, Egaleo, 12241, Athens GREECE
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 1.3 MB)
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Language: English
Published: World Scientific and Engineering Academy and Society, 2023
Publish Date: 2023-05-03


Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) can use data from non-invasive electroencephalogram (EEG) to transform different brain signals into binary code, often aiming to gain control utility of an end-effector (e.g mouse cursor). In the past several years, advances in wearable and immersive technologies have made it possible to integrate EEG with virtual reality (VR) headsets. These advances have enabled a new generation of user studies that help researchers improve understanding of various issues in current VR design (e.g. cybersickness and locomotion). The main challenge for integrating EEG-based BCIs into VR environments is to develop communication architectures that deliver robust, reliable and lossless data flows. Furthermore, user comfort and near real-time interactivity create additional challenges. We conducted two experiments in which a consumer-grade EEG headband (Muse2) was utilized to assess the feasibility of an EEG-based BCI in virtual environments. We first conducted a pilot experiment that consisted of a simple task of object re-scaling inside the VR space using focus values generated from the user’s EEG. The subsequent study experiment consisted of two groups (control and experimental) performing two tasks: telekinesis and teleportation. Our user research study shows the viability of EEG for real-time interactions in non-serious applications such as games. We further suggest that a simplified way of calculating the mean EEG values is adequate for this type of use. We, in addition, discuss the findings to help improve the design of user research studies that deploy similar EEGbased BCIs in VR environments.

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Series: WSEAS transactions on information science and applications
ISSN: 1790-0832
ISSN-E: 2224-3402
ISSN-L: 1790-0832
Volume: 20
Pages: 98 - 108
DOI: 10.37394/23209.2023.20.12
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 213 Electronic, automation and communications engineering, electronics
Funding: This work has been partially funded by the European Commission grants IDUNN (101021911), PRINCE (815362), and Academy of Finland 6 Genesis Flagship (318927).
EU Grant Number: (101021911) IDUNN - A Cognitive Detection System for Cybersecure Operational Technologies
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 318927
Detailed Information: 318927 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Copyright information: © The Authors. This article is published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0