University of Oulu

Moukannaa, Samira, Mohammad Alzeer, D.D. Ramteke, Katja Ohenoja, Juha Roppo, Paivo Kinnunen, and Mirja Illikainen. “Investigation of Different Paper Mill Ashes as Potential Supplementary Cementitious Materials.” Journal of Cleaner Production 363 (August 2022): 132583.

Investigation of different paper mill ashes as potential supplementary cementitious materials

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Author: Moukannaa, Samira1; Alzeer, Mohammad1; Ramteke, Durgaprasad;
Organizations: 1Fibre and Particle Engineering Research Unit, University of Oulu, Pentti Kaiteran katu 1, 90014, Oulu, Finland
2Valmet Technologies Oy, Yritt ̈aj ̈ankatu 21, 33710, Tampere, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 9.7 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Elsevier, 2022
Publish Date: 2023-05-05


Integrating supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) in cement-based construction materials is a key strategy for reducing environmental burdens and the greenhouse gas emissions related to cement production. Supplies of commonly applied SCMs such as fly ash and blast furnace slag are becoming limited, and therefore the search for alternative SCMs is of high significance. The present research investigates the viability of four paper mill ashes collected at different stages from the same incineration process as SCMs at different cement substitution rates (5–30 wt%). The ashes were first classified depending on their mineralogical and chemical composition, and their contribution to strength development of the prepared mortars is examined. Furthermore, the effects of the ashes on the hydration kinetics and the fresh and hardened properties of the prepared mortars were studied. The obtained results showed that a high level of SCM replacement accelerates the early hydration reactions and decreases the setting time. In addition, the incorporation of paper mill ashes increased the bound water depending on the ash type and resulted in strength development of the mortars at low replacement per- centages (5–10 wt%). This study shows that the ashes belonging to type C medium acid based on bio ash classification could be incorporated as SCMs at a maximum level of 10 wt%, while those corresponding to type C low acid could be used up to 20–30 wt%.

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Series: Journal of cleaner production
ISSN: 0959-6526
ISSN-E: 1879-1786
ISSN-L: 0959-6526
Volume: 363
Article number: 132583
DOI: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2022.132583
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 222 Other engineering and technologies
Funding: This research was part of the MIMEPRO-project (7935/35/2019), which is a Business Finland funded Co-Innovation Project together with the following companies: Metsä Fibre Oy, Stora Enso Oyj, Valmet Oy, Fortum Waste Solutions Oy, Matnur Oy, Betoniteollisuus ry, and ParmaConsolis Oy.
Copyright information: © 2022 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (