University of Oulu

Khedr M, Ibrahim IR, Jaskari M, Ali M, Abdel-Aleem HA, Mahmoud TS, Hamada A. Microstructural Evolution and Mechanical Performance of Two Joints of Medium-Mn Stainless Steel with Low- and High-Alloyed Steels. Materials. 2023; 16(4):1624.

Microstructural evolution and mechanical performance of two joints of medium-Mn stainless steel with low- and high-alloyed steels

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Author: Khedr, Mahmoud1,2; Ibrahim, I. Reda1; Jaskari, Matias2;
Organizations: 1Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering at Shoubra, Benha University, Cairo 11629, Egypt
2Kerttu Saalasti Institute, Future Manufacturing Technologies (FMT), University of Oulu, FI-85500 Nivala, Finland
3Steel Technology Department, Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute (CMRDI), Helwan 11722, Egypt
4Materials and Mechanical Engineering, Centre for Advanced Steel Research, University of Oulu, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland
5Department of Welding Technology and Inspection, Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute, El-Tebbin, Helwan 11421, Egypt
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 11.1 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2023
Publish Date: 2023-05-05


In this work, 2 mm thick medium-Mn austenitic stainless steel (MMn–SS) plates were joined with austenitic NiCr stainless steel (NiCr–SS) and low-carbon steel (LCS) using the gas tungsten arc welding technique. A precise adjustment of the welding process parameters was conducted to achieve high-quality dissimilar joints of MMn–SS with NiCr–SS and LCS. The microstructural evolution was studied using laser scanning confocal and electron microscopes. Secondary electron imaging and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) techniques were intensively employed to analyze the fine features of the weld structures. The mechanical properties of the joints were evaluated by uniaxial tensile tests and micro-indentation hardness (HIT). The microstructure of the fusion zone (FZ) in the MMn–SS joints exhibited an austenitic matrix with a small fraction of δ-ferrite, ~6%. The tensile strength (TS) of the MMn–SS/NiCr–SS joint is significantly higher than that of the MMn–SS/LCS joint. For instance, the TSs of MMn–SS joints with NiCr–SS and LCS are 610 and 340 MPa, respectively. The tensile properties of MMn–SS/LCS joints are similar to those of BM LCS, since the deformation behavior and shape of the tensile flow curve for that joint are comparable with the flow curve of LCS. The HIT measurements show that the MMn–SS/NiCr–SS joint is significantly stronger than the MMn–SS/LCS joint since the HIT values are 2.18 and 1.85 GPa, respectively.

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Series: Materials
ISSN: 1996-1944
ISSN-E: 1996-1944
ISSN-L: 1996-1944
Volume: 16
Issue: 4
Article number: 1624
DOI: 10.3390/ma16041624
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 216 Materials engineering
Funding: This research was funded by financial assistance from Business of Finland, project FOSSA- Fossil-Free Steel Applications, grant number 5498-31-2021.
Copyright information: © 2023 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (