University of Oulu

Kolli, T., Hiltunen, M., Niskanen, I., Tyni, P., Immonen, M., Heikkilä, R. (2023). Comparison of Exhaust Gas Emissions Between Autonomous and Human Operator Excavator. In: Gaspar, F., Mateus, A. (eds) Sustainable and Digital Building . Springer, Cham.

Comparison of exhaust gas emissions between autonomous and human operator excavator

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Author: Kolli, Tanja1; Hiltunen, Mikko1; Niskanen, Ilpo1;
Organizations: 1Faculty of Technology, Civil Engineering Research Unit, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: accepted version
Access: embargoed
Persistent link:
Language: English
Published: Springer, 2023
Publish Date: 2024-04-30


The scope of this study was to compare the exhaust gas emissions of an autonomous driving and a human operator excavator under real construction work conditions. The test diesel engine excavator with EPA 2012 emission regulations rules (Tier 4final/Stage IIIB) has an engine power of 44.3 kW at an engine speed of 2100 rpm. In addition, it has various devices, such as exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and diesel particle filter (DPF), to reduce the engine-out emissions. The exhaust gas emissions, including carbon dioxides (CO₂) and nitrous oxides (NOx), were measured with a portable Gasmet DX4000 FTIR gas analyser and analysed with Calcmet software. Pressure transmitter with digital output by G2 6DOF IMU by Novatron was used to check the pressure and angular variations, respectively. In addition, FLIR E60 IR Camera was used to visualize the exhaust gas during the chilly winter experiment conditions.

The exhaust gas tests were carried out in a simple move of bucket with autonomous driving and repeated with a human operator. For both tests, the movement of the bucket was done in 0%, 50% and 100% engine speed positions. In autonomous driving, autonomous trajectories were generated in the Rhino Grasshopper environment. Based on the emission analysis results, the CO₂ emission was lower during autonomous driving than during human operation. The same trend was also seen in the case of NOx emissions. The human operator used a higher movement speed and a slightly different movement compared with autonomous driving, which may explain the difference in emissions.

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ISBN: 978-3-031-25795-7
ISBN Print: 978-3-031-25794-0
Pages: 51 - 60
DOI: 10.1007/978-3-031-25795-7_4
Host publication: Sustainable and Digital Building : Proceedings of the International Conference, 2022
Host publication editor: Gaspar, Florindo
Mateus, Artur
Type of Publication: A3 Book chapter
Field of Science: 212 Civil and construction engineering
Funding: These experiments are part of the Sustainable Development in the Digitalization of Infrastructure Construction project funded by Business Finland.
Copyright information: © 2023 The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.