University of Oulu

Lin, Y.; Välikangas, J.; Sliz, R.; Molaiyan, P.; Hu, T.; Lassi, U. Optimized Morphology and Tuning the Mn3+ Content of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 Cathode Material for Li-Ion Batteries. Materials 2023, 16, 3116.

Optimized morphology and tuning the Mn3+ content of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode material for li-ion batteries

Saved in:
Author: Lin, Yan1; Välikangas, Juho1,2; Sliz, Rafal3;
Organizations: 1Research Unit of Sustainable Chemistry, Faculty of Technology, University of Oulu, 90570 Oulu, Finland
2Kokkola University Consortium Chydenius, University of Jyvaskyla, 67100 Kokkola, Finland
3Optoelectronics and Measurement Techniques Unit, University of Oulu, 90570 Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 2.5 MB)
Persistent link:
Language: English
Published: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2023
Publish Date: 2023-05-11


The advantages of cobalt-free, high specific capacity, high operating voltage, low cost, and environmental friendliness of spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O₄(LNMO) material make it one of the most promising cathode materials for next-generation lithium-ion batteries. The disproportionation reaction of Mn³⁺ leads to Jahn–Teller distortion, which is the key issue in reducing the crystal structure stability and limiting the electrochemical stability of the material. In this work, single-crystal LNMO was synthesized successfully by the sol-gel method. The morphology and the Mn³⁺ content of the as-prepared LNMO were tuned by altering the synthesis temperature. The results demonstrated that the LNMO_110 material exhibited the most uniform particle distribution as well as the presence of the lowest concentration of Mn³⁺, which was beneficial to ion diffusion and electronic conductivity. As a result, this LNMO cathode material had an optimized electrochemical rate performance of 105.6 mAh g−1 at 1 C and cycling stability of 116.8 mAh g−1 at 0.1 C after 100 cycles.

see all

Series: Materials
ISSN: 1996-1944
ISSN-E: 1996-1944
ISSN-L: 1996-1944
Volume: 16
Issue: 8
Article number: 3116
DOI: 10.3390/ma16083116
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 116 Chemical sciences
Funding: This research was funded by the PASS project in Finland (2430356512, A76178, EU Regional Fund) and BATCircle2.0 (Business Finland 44612/31/2020). Financial supports from Tauno Tönningin Säätiö (20220020) and Fortum and Neste foundation (20220130).
Copyright information: © 2023 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (