University of Oulu

Freschi, M.; Dragoni, L.; Mariani, M.; Haiko, O.; Kömi, J.; Lecis, N.; Dotelli, G. Tuning the Parameters of Cu–WS2 Composite Production via Powder Metallurgy: Evaluation of the Effects on Tribological Properties. Lubricants 2023, 11, 66.

Tuning the parameters of Cu–WS₂ composite production via powder metallurgy : evaluation of the effects on tribological properties

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Author: Freschi, Marco1; Dragoni, Lara1; Mariani, Marco2;
Organizations: 1Department of Chemistry, Materials and Chemical Engineering “Giulio Natta”, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano, Italy
2Department of Mechanical Engineering, Politecnico di Milano, 20156 Milano, Italy
3Materials and Mechanical Engineering, Centre for Advanced Steels Research, University of Oulu, Pentti Kaiteran Katu 1, 90570 Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 6.3 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2023
Publish Date: 2023-05-11


Metal matrix self-lubricating composites exhibit outstanding performance in various environments, reaching the required properties by modifying the reinforcement–matrix ratio and the production method. The present research investigated the effects on tribological performance and electrical properties of different pressure loads, maintaining pressing time, and sintering temperatures during the production of copper–10 wt% tungsten disulfide (Cu–WS₂) composite via powder metallurgy. Moreover, additional thermo-mechanical treatments were evaluated, namely second pressing and second sintering steps. The density and the hardness of the produced composites were measured, as well as the electrical resistivity, considering sliding electrical contacts as possible employment. The outputs of the wear tests were considered together with the analysis of the wear track via scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy to understand wear mechanisms. Different production routes were compared in terms of electrical resistivity, wear coefficient, and specific wear rate, calculated by the confocal laser scanning microscopy, and friction coefficient, measured during the wear test. The main results highlighted that the increase in sintering temperature was detrimental to the hardness and tribological properties; higher load and additional pressing step determined a general improvement in the tested properties.

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Series: Lubricants
ISSN: 2075-4442
ISSN-E: 2075-4442
ISSN-L: 2075-4442
Volume: 11
Issue: 2
Article number: 66
DOI: 10.3390/lubricants11020066
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 216 Materials engineering
Copyright information: © 2023 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (