University of Oulu

Mirmojarabian, S. A., Liukkonen, E., Casula, V., Nissi, M. J., Ahvenjärvi, L, Junttila, J, & Liimatainen, T. (2021). Relaxation along Fictitious Field (RAFF) provide an appropriate alternative method for imaging chronic myocardial infarct without exogenous contrast media. Interventional Cardiology, 13(5), 381-388.

Relaxation along Fictitious Field (RAFF) provide an appropriate alternative method for imaging chronic myocardial infarct without exogenous contrast media

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Author: Mirmojarabian, Seyed Amir1; Liukkonen, Esa2; Casula, Victor1;
Organizations: 1Research Unit of Medical Imaging, Physics and Technology, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
2Department of Radiology, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland
3Department of Applied Physics, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland
4Research Unit of Internal Medicine, Medical Research Center Oulu, University of Oulu and Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.6 MB)
Persistent link:
Language: English
Published: OMICS Publishing Group, 2021
Publish Date: 2023-05-25


Background: Relaxation along Fictitious Field with rank 2 (RAFF2) has been shown to provide contrast agent-free alternative for gadolinium based Late Gadolinium Enhancement (LGE) measurement in mouse model. To characterize chronic Myocardial Infarction (MI) by using Relaxation along Fictitious Field in human myocardium without contrast agents.

Methods and findings: Data for this study were collected in 18 patients with chronic infarct at 1.5 T. Scarred and remote area averages of RAFF2 relaxation time and steady state (TRAFF2 and SSRAFF2), native T₁ and T₂, Extra Cellular Volume (ECV) and LGE were calculated. Subsequently infarct sizes were determined and compared between LGE, ECV and RAFF2 maps. In addition, area of overestimation (AOE) was estimated for RAFF2 maps.

The TRAFF2 and SSRAFF2, native T₁ and T₂ relaxation times, ECV and LGE values elevated at scar compared to remote area. Areas of increased LGE were highly correlated to the areas with increased SSRAFF2 (R=0.71, p<0.01) and TRAFF2 (R=0.47, p<0.05).

Summary: RAFFn has been used to characterize myocardial infarction in humans and in mice. RAFFn owns potential to be used in the MI diagnosis without contrast agents.

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Series: Interventional cardiology
ISSN: 1755-5302
ISSN-E: 1755-5310
ISSN-L: 1755-5302
Volume: 13
Issue: 5
Pages: 381 - 388
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 217 Medical engineering
Funding: The study is supported by the following organizations: Academy of Finland, Finnish Foundation for Cardiovascular Research and Aarne Koskelo Foundation.
Copyright information: Interventional Cardiology Journal allows the authors to retain the copyright of their contributions while granting non-exclusive licensing to the publisher to publish and distribute the article and identify the publisher as the original source. Interventional cardiology is green open access Journal as per the Sherpa/RoMeo categorization. The open access pathways permitted by the journal policy are as follows: For the submitted and accepted version, authors own the copyright and are encouraged to post their published article to the institutional repositories without any embargo period provided the publisher source is acknowledged. The published articles are archived in the journal repository under creative commons attribution license CC-BY [4.0] terms.