University of Oulu

R. Hashemi, M. Kazemi and A. Mohammadi, "Analysis and Optimization of Spectral and Energy Efficiency in Underlaid D2D Multi-Cell Massive MISO Over Rician Fading," in IEEE Transactions on Green Communications and Networking, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 3-15, March 2023, doi: 10.1109/TGCN.2022.3193071

Analysis and optimization of spectral and energy efficiency in underlaid D2D multi-cell massive MISO over Rician fading

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Author: Hashemi, Ramin1,2; Kazemi, Mohammad1,3; Mohammadi, Abbas1
Organizations: 1Department of Electrical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
2Centre for Wireless Communications, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
3Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Bilkent University, Ankara, Turkey
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 1.8 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2022
Publish Date: 2023-05-26


This paper investigates the uplink spectral efficiency (SE) characterization and energy efficiency (EE) optimization of device-to-device (D2D) communications underlying a multi-cell massive multiple-input single-output (m-MISO) network, assuming that the channels are modeled with Rician fading. First, an analytical expression for the lower-bound of the ergodic capacity of a typical cellular user (CU) is derived with imperfect channel state information in the presence of D2D links’ interference. Then, a closed-form approximate achievable SE expression for a typical D2D pair is derived considering Rician fading between D2D pairs. The asymptotic SE behavior is analyzed in strong line-of-sight (LOS) conditions for CU and D2D pairs. Also, simplified expressions are obtained for the special case of Rayleigh fading. Next, to optimize the total EE, a transmit data power allocation based on the derived rate expressions is formulated. Since the optimization problem has a non-linear and non-convex objective function, it is intractable to be solved straightforwardly. Therefore, we resort to utilizing an iterative algorithm relying on fractional programming. The numerical results show that a stronger LOS component (i.e., larger Rician K-factor) between a typical CU and its serving BS leads to a significant improvement in the system performance, while it has less effect on the D2D network.

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Series: IEEE transactions on green communications and networking
ISSN: 2473-2400
ISSN-E: 2473-2400
ISSN-L: 2473-2400
Volume: 7
Issue: 1
Pages: 3 - 15
DOI: 10.1109/TGCN.2022.3193071
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 213 Electronic, automation and communications engineering, electronics
Funding: This work was supported in part by the Iran National Science Foundation (INSF) under Grant 96007127 and Grant 9701279.
Copyright information: © The Author(s) 2022. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. For more information, see