University of Oulu

T. Talala, E. Parkkinen and I. Nissinen, "CMOS SPAD Line Sensor With Fine-Tunable Parallel Connected Time-to-Digital Converters for Raman Spectroscopy," in IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, vol. 58, no. 5, pp. 1350-1361, May 2023, doi: 10.1109/JSSC.2022.3212549

CMOS SPAD line sensor with fine-tunable parallel connected time-to-digital converters for Raman spectroscopy

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Author: Talala, Tuomo1; Parkkinen, Eetu1; Nissinen, Ilkka1
Organizations: 1Circuits and Systems Research Unit, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 5.9 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2022
Publish Date: 2023-05-26


A 256-channel single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) line sensor was designed for time-resolved Raman spectroscopy in 110-nm CMOS technology. The line sensor consists of an 8 X 256 SPAD array and 256 parallel connected time-to-digital converters (TDCs). The adjustable temporal resolution and dynamic range of TDCs are 25.6–65 ps and 3.2–8.2 ns, respectively. The median timing skew along 256 channels is 43.7 ps, and TDC bin boundaries can be fine-tuned at the ps-level to enable precise timing skew compensation. The sensor is capable of real-time dark count measurement (two dark measurements for each excitation pulse) that gives accurate data for dark count compensation without any increment in measurement time. The maximum excitation pulse rate with real-time dark count measurement is 680 kHz. Raman spectra of six different samples were measured to prove the performance of the sensor in time-resolved Raman spectroscopy.

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Series: IEEE journal of solid-state circuits
ISSN: 0018-9200
ISSN-E: 1558-173X
ISSN-L: 0018-9200
Volume: 58
Issue: 5
Pages: 1350 - 1361
DOI: 10.1109/JSSC.2022.3212549
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 213 Electronic, automation and communications engineering, electronics
Funding: This work was supported by the Academy of Finland under Contract 314404 and Contract 323719.
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 314404
Detailed Information: 314404 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
323719 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Copyright information: © The Author(s) 2022. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. For more information, see