University of Oulu

Scaciota, Rafaela; Alcaraz Lopez, Onel L.; Glauber, Brante; Richard Demo, Souza; Mariano, Andre A.; Moritz, Guilherme Luiz. “Batteryless Machine-Type Communications With Average Channel State Information Energy Beamforming.” IEEE Access 10 (2022): 129676–86.

Batteryless machine-type communications with average channel state information energy beamforming

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Author: Scaciota, Rafaela1,2; Alcaraz López, Onel L.2; Brante, Glauber1;
Organizations: 1Graduate Program in Electrical and Computer Engineering, Federal University of Technology—Paraná (UTFPR), Curitiba 80230-901, Brazil
2Centre for Wireless Communications (CWC), University of Oulu, 90570 Oulu, Finland
3Departament of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Federal University of Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianópolis 88040-900, Brazil
4Department of Electrical Engineering, Federal University of Paraná (UFPR), Curitiba 81531-980, Brazil
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 1.5 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2022
Publish Date: 2023-05-29


Machine-type communication (MTC) is a key component in 5G and beyond wireless networks, enabling important applications oriented to the industry. In such environments, the limited lifetime of battery-powered solutions becomes a relevant reliability issue. In this paper, we consider a sensor node powered wirelessly by a dedicated multi-antenna power beacon (PB). The harvested energy is directly used by the sensor to power its transceiver and send information to a destination node without storing it in a battery, which would demand non-negligible charging time and potentially compromise the MTC operation. Also, we leverage a packet replication mechanism during information transmission from the sensor to the destination in order to improve the system reliability. We derive the incident power statistics and the outage probability assuming Rician fading channels and only average channel state information at the PB. Then, we define an optimization problem aiming to minimize the energy required by the PB by properly tuning the number of replicated packets and the harvesting time. Results show the existence of an optimal harvesting time as well as an optimal number of replications for a given number of PB antennas, enabling batteryless MTC applications.

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Series: IEEE access
ISSN: 2169-3536
ISSN-E: 2169-3536
ISSN-L: 2169-3536
Volume: 10
Pages: 129676 - 129686
DOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2022.3227801
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 213 Electronic, automation and communications engineering, electronics
Funding: This work was supported in part by CAPES, Brazil, under Finance Code 001, Grant CNPq 402378/2021-0, Grant CNPq 305021/2021-4, Grant CNPq 307226/2021-2, and Grant CNPq 309796/2020-2; in part by the Finnish Foundation for Technology Promotion and Academy of Finland under Grant 348515 and Grant 346208 (6G Flagship); and in part by the EC Research Innovation Action under the H2020 Program under the Project HPC-EUROPA3 under Grant INFRAIA-2016-1-730897. Rafaela Scaciota gratefully acknowledges the support of Onel L. Alcaraz Lopez, the computer resources and technical support provided by CWC.
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 348515
Detailed Information: 348515 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
346208 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Copyright information: © 2022 The Authors. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. For more information, see