University of Oulu

Zhang, Y., Tian, C., Ren, C., Tang, J., Gao, L., Omran, M., & Chen, G. (2023). The effect of mechanical activation duration on the structure and physical properties of titanium slag. Materials Today Communications, 35, 106200.

The effect of mechanical activation duration on the structure and physical properties of titanium slag

Saved in:
Author: Zhang, Yanqiong1; Tian, Chunlan1; Ren, Chunxiao1;
Organizations: 1Kunming Key Laboratory of Energy Materials Chemistry, Yunnan Minzu University, Kunming 650500, Yunnan, PR China
2Process Metallurgy Research Group, Faculty of Technology, University of Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: accepted version
Access: embargoed
Persistent link:
Language: English
Published: Elsevier, 2023
Publish Date: 2025-05-13


TiO₂ is popular in modern industries, including dyestuffs, printing, and cosmetics. To convert titanium slag to TiO₂ with maximum efficiency, mechanical activation is an important pretreatment step to control the particle size of the titanium slag and the subsequent leaching process. Our study used a planetary high-energy ball mill to wet the titanium slag by mechanical activation for 3, 9, and 15 h to obtain the optimized condition for particle size control of the pretreated titanium slag. The phase composition was characterized by XRD, FT-IR, and Raman spectroscopy. The main constituents of the titanium slag were determined to be rutile TiO₂ and Fe₃Ti₃O₁₀. Calculating the relative intensity showed that some encapsulated phases were opened because of mechanical activation. The weight and density of titanium slag in the same volume increased, resulting in significantly enhanced peaks. The results can greatly improve the efficiency of subsequent titanium dioxide production. A laser particle size analyzer and SEM characterized the mechanical activation product. The results showed that when the mechanical activation duration is 15 h, the titanium slag obtained has a small particle size and a uniform, smaller specific surface area, and narrow particle size distribution. The current report has not introduced wet grinding to pretreat titanium slag. This simple method can be effectively applied to pre-treat titanium slag raw materials.

see all

Series: Materials today communications
ISSN: 2352-4928
ISSN-E: 2352-4928
ISSN-L: 2352-4928
Volume: 35
Article number: 106200
DOI: 10.1016/j.mtcomm.2023.106200
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 216 Materials engineering
Funding: The authors acknowledge the financial support from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No: 51504110, 51404114).
Copyright information: © 2023. This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license