University of Oulu

Dapporto, L., Menchetti, M., Vodă, R., Corbella, C., Cuvelier, S., Djemadi, I., Gascoigne-Pees, M., Hinojosa, J. C., Lam, N. T., Serracanta, M., Talavera, G., Dincă, V., & Vila, R. (2022). The atlas of mitochondrial genetic diversity for Western Palaearctic butterflies. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 31, 2184– 2190.

The atlas of mitochondrial genetic diversity for Western Palaearctic butterflies

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Author: Dapporto, Leonardo1; Menchetti, Mattia2; Vodă, Raluca3;
Organizations: 1ZEN Lab, Dipartimento di Biologia dell'Università di Firenze, Florence, Italy
2Institut de Biologia Evolutiva (CSIC-UPF), Barcelona, Spain
3Evolutionary Ecology and Genetics Group, Earth and Life Institute, UCLouvain, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium
4VVE Workgroup Butterflies, Ieper, Belgium
5Biodiversity and Environment Division, Environmental Research Center, Annaba, Algeria
62 Barrett's Close, Stonesfield, Oxfordshire, UK
7Ecology and Genetics Research Unit, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
8Facultat de Biociències, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
9Institut Botànic de Barcelona (IBB), CSIC-Ajuntament de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 6.1 MB)
Persistent link:
Language: English
Published: John Wiley & Sons, 2022
Publish Date: 2023-06-09


Motivation: Butterflies represent a model in biology and a flagship group for invertebrate conservation. We provide four new resources for the Western Palaearctic butterflies: (1) an updated checklist comprising 552 species; (2) a curated dataset of 32,126 mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) sequences for 532 species, including a de novo reference library for the Maghreb (Morocco, northern Algeria and Tunisia) and Macaronesia (Azores, Madeira and Canary Islands); (3) seven indexes of intraspecific genetic variation (IGV): observed and expected number of haplotypes, haplotype and nucleotide diversity, two fixation indexes and maximum p-distance; and (4) species-level maps illustrating the distribution of COI variability and haplotype networks. The updated checklist will be fundamental for any application dealing with butterfly diversity in the Western Palaearctic. The IGV indexes provide measures for genetic polymorphism and spatial structure and represent proxies for dispersal capacity. These resources will facilitate comparative studies of macrogenetics, foster integrative taxonomy and aid conservation strategies.

Main types of variables contained: A complete species checklist in table format, 32,126 mitochondrial DNA barcodes provided with metadata (species membership, WGS84 coordinates and sequence length) and a book in PDF format, including the IGV atlas and indexes, are provided.

Spatial location and grain: The checklist encompasses Europe up to the Urals in the east, north Macaronesia (the Azores, Madeira and the Canary Islands) and the Maghreb (Morocco, northern Algeria and Tunisia). COI sequences have been retained in the geographical interval of −31.3 to 67.5° of longitude and 27.5–71.2° of latitude.

Time period and grain: COI sequences originate from studies published between 1998 and 2022 and from de novo sequencing of 2541 specimens done between 2007 and 2022.

Major taxa and level of measurement: Butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea), analysed from individual to species level.

Software format: Data and functions to manage the dataset are provided in the iodatabase R package ( and in Dryad (

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Series: Global ecology and biogeography. A journal of macroecology
ISSN: 1466-822X
ISSN-E: 1466-822X
ISSN-L: 1466-822X
Volume: 31
Issue: 11
Pages: 2184 - 2190
DOI: 10.1111/geb.13579
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 1181 Ecology, evolutionary biology
Funding: Support for this research was provided by the Academy of Finland (Academy Research Fellow, decision no. 328895) and by a Marie Curie International Outgoing Fellowship within the 7th European Community Framework Programme (project no. 625997) to V.D., by “la Caixa” Foundation (ID 100010434) to M.M. (grant LCF/BQ/DR20/11790020), and by projects CGL2010-21226/BOS and CGL2013-48277-P (Spanish Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad), CGL2016-76322 (AEI/FEDER, UE), PID2019-107078GB-I00 (MCIN/AEI/10.13039/501100011033) and 2017-SGR-991 (Generalitat de Catalunya) to R.Vi., the grant BES-2017-080641 funded by MCIN/AEI/10.13039/501100011033 and by “ESF Investing in your future” to J.C.H., the project PID2020-117739GA-I00 (MCIN/AEI/10.13039/501100011033) to G.T., and by the Direttiva Biodiversità 2019 and 2020 projects (Ministero della Transizione Ecologica) to L.D.
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 328895
Detailed Information: 328895 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Copyright information: © 2022 The Authors. Global Ecology and Biogeography published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited and is not used for commercial purposes.