University of Oulu

Rönkkö, P., Majava, J., Hyvärinen, T. et al. The circular economy of electric vehicle batteries: a Finnish case study. Environ Syst Decis (2023).

The circular economy of electric vehicle batteries : a Finnish case study

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Author: Rönkkö, Pasi1; Majava, Jukka1; Hyvärinen, Tatu1;
Organizations: 1Industrial Engineering and Management Research Unit, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 4610, 90014, Oulu, Finland
2Sustainable Chemistry Research Unit, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 4610, 90014, Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.9 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Springer Nature, 2023
Publish Date: 2023-06-13


The automotive industry faces challenges because of the electrification of vehicles and the rapidly increasing need for electric vehicle batteries (EVBs). Raw materials availability is limited; however, there will also be a significant number of end-of-life (EOL) batteries. This creates various circular economy (CE) business opportunities for EVB manufacturers, third-party providers, and other stakeholders. However, not all CE solutions are sustainable or economically feasible. In this study, through the use of case studies, expert interviews, and a survey, we determined the current state of the EVB CE in Finland, the possible options for utilizing EOL vehicle batteries, and the greatest barriers for the EVB CE. We found that some EVB-related CE applications are not supported by the government and legislation, for example environmental regulations and building standards. CE opportunities include a shorter lead time for some components, which makes them attractive for EOL applications.

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Series: Environment systems & decisions
ISSN: 2194-5403
ISSN-E: 2194-5411
ISSN-L: 2194-5403
Volume: In press
DOI: 10.1007/s10669-023-09916-z
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 512 Business and management
218 Environmental engineering
Funding: This research was funded by the Academy of Finland, InStreams profiling (Grant No. 326291).
Copyright information: © The Author(s) 2023. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit