University of Oulu

Qas Elias, B. B., & Soh, P. J. (2023). Resonance Analysis and Gain Estimation Using CMA-Based Even Mode Combination Method for Flexible Wideband Antennas. Sensors, 23(11), 5297.

Resonance analysis and gain estimation using CMA-based even mode combination method for flexible wideband antennas

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Author: Qas Elias, Bashar Bahaa1; Soh, Ping Jack2
Organizations: 1Department of Communications Technology Engineering,College of Information Technology, Imam Ja’afar Al-Sadiq University, Baghdad 10052, Iraq
2Centre for Wireless Communications (CWC), University of Oulu, P.O. Box 4500, 90014 Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 7.4 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2023
Publish Date: 2023-06-15


This work presents an efficient design and optimization method based on characteristic mode analysis (CMA) to predict the resonance and gain of wideband antennas made from flexible materials. Known as the even mode combination (EMC) method based on CMA, the forward gain is estimated based on the principle of summing the electric field magnitudes of the first even dominant modes of the antenna. To demonstrate its effectiveness, two compact, flexible planar monopole antennas designed on different materials and two different feeding methods are presented and analyzed. The first planar monopole is designed on Kapton polyimide substrate and fed using a coplanar waveguide to operate from 2 to 5.27 GHz (measured). On the other hand, the second antenna is designed on felt textile and fed using a microstrip line to operate from about 2.99 to 5.57 GHz (measured). Their frequencies are selected to ensure their relevance in operating across several important wireless frequency bands, such as 2.45 GHz, 3.6 GHz, 5.5 GHz, and 5.8 GHz. On the other hand, these antennas are also designed to enable competitive bandwidth and compactness relative to the recent literature. Comparison of the optimized gains and other performance parameters of both structures are in agreement with the optimized results from full wave simulations, which process is less resource-efficient and more iterative.

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Series: Sensors
ISSN: 1424-8220
ISSN-E: 1424-8220
ISSN-L: 1424-8220
Volume: 23
Issue: 11
Article number: 5297
DOI: 10.3390/s23115297
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 213 Electronic, automation and communications engineering, electronics
Funding: This work was supported in part by the Academy of Finland through the 6G Flagship program under grant 346208 and in part by the Academy of Finland project LiBERATE under Grant 346949.
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 346208
Detailed Information: 346208 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
346949 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Copyright information: © 2023 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (