University of Oulu

Kursula, K., Perumal, P., Ohenoja, K. et al. Production of artificial aggregates by granulation and carbonation of recycled concrete fines. J Mater Cycles Waste Manag 24, 2141–2150 (2022).

Production of artificial aggregates by granulation and carbonation of recycled concrete fines

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Author: Kursula, Kalle1; Perumal, Priyadharshini1; Ohenoja, Katja1;
Organizations: 1Fibre and Particle Engineering Research Unit, University of Oulu, Pentti Kaiteran katu 1, 90014, Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 1.8 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Springer Nature, 2022
Publish Date: 2023-06-19


There is a growing need to find ways to reuse fine concrete waste from the construction industry. In this study, recycled concrete fines were granulated and used as lightweight aggregates. Ladle slag, a steel industry residue, was used as a co-binder in different ratios (0, 10, 20, and 30%). The materials were blended and granulated, and then the granules were cured in three conditions: ambient condition, humidity chamber, and carbonation chamber. The results showed that the ladle slag content of 30% cured in a humidity chamber produced the strongest granules, with a crushing strength of 127 N, which was 135% greater than a commercial lightweight aggregate. The granules generally had satisfactory density and water absorption with a higher ladle slag content. Carbonation increased the granule strength with a low ladle slag content and decreased the granules’ water absorption. The improved physical and mechanical properties of carbonated granules are attributed to the formation of calcium carbonate during the carbonation process. The granules produced in this study show good potential for use as lightweight aggregates in the construction industry.

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Series: Journal of material cycles and waste management
ISSN: 1438-4957
ISSN-E: 1611-8227
ISSN-L: 1438-4957
Volume: 24
Issue: 6
Pages: 2141 - 2150
DOI: 10.1007/s10163-022-01457-y
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 216 Materials engineering
Funding: Open Access funding provided by University of Oulu including Oulu University Hospital.
Copyright information: © The Author(s) 2022. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit