University of Oulu

P. Fernando, K. Dadallage, T. Gamage, C. Seneviratne, A. Madanayake and M. Liyanage, "Proof of Sense: A Novel Consensus Mechanism for Spectrum Misuse Detection," in IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, vol. 18, no. 12, pp. 9206-9216, Dec. 2022, doi: 10.1109/TII.2022.3169978

Proof of sense : a novel consensus mechanism for spectrum misuse detection

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Author: Fernando, Pramitha1; Dadallage, Keshawa2; Gamage, Tharindu2;
Organizations: 1Faculty of Engineering, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium
2Department of Electrical and Information Engineering, University of Ruhuna, Galle, Sri Lanka
3Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Florida International University (FIU), Miami, FL, USA
4School of Computer Science, University College Dublin, Dublin 4, Ireland
5Centre for Wireless Communications, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 1.7 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2022
Publish Date: 2023-06-19


Optimal use of scarce radio spectrum is essential in the proliferation of beyond 5G networks, and promising blockchain technology offers various benefits for the spectrum management. However, existing blockchain-based solutions are expensive, nonoptimized, and lack spectrum fraud detection. This article proposes a novel consensus mechanism for a blockchain-based dynamic spectrum access (DSA) system. The proposed “ Proof-of-Sense ” consensus mechanism operates based on spectrum sensing procedures rather than cryptographic calculations. It is specially designed to address fraudulent/unauthorized access to the spectrum by analyzing the sensed spectrum data. The core of the consensus mechanism is a cryptographic key sharing mechanism inspired by Shamir’s secret sharing scheme. Moreover, the proposed DSA system can enable different microservices, such as automated spectrum auctions, payment and penalty handling, and spectrum fraud detection. A proof of concept based on experimental approaches coupled with Matlab simulations is presented to analyze the performance of the proposed consensus mechanism.

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Series: IEEE transactions on industrial informatics
ISSN: 1551-3203
ISSN-E: 1941-0050
ISSN-L: 1551-3203
Volume: 18
Issue: 12
Pages: 9206 - 9216
DOI: 10.1109/tii.2022.3169978
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 213 Electronic, automation and communications engineering, electronics
Funding: This work was supported by the framework of 6Genesis Flagship under Grant 318927. Paper no. TII-21-5844.
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 318927
Detailed Information: 318927 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Copyright information: © The Author(s) 2022. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 License. For more information, see