University of Oulu

Trivedi P, Klavins L, Hykkerud AL, Kviesis J, Elferts D, Martinussen I, Klavins M, Karppinen K, Häggman H and Jaakola L (2022) Temperature has a major effect on the cuticular wax composition of bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) fruit. Front. Plant Sci. 13:980427. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2022.980427

Temperature has a major effect on the cuticular wax composition of bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) fruit

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Author: Trivedi, Priyanka1; Klavins, Linards2; Hykkerud, Anne Linn3;
Organizations: 1Department of Ecology and Genetics, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
2Department of Environmental Science, University of Latvia, Riga, Latvia
3NIBIO, Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research, Ås, Norway
4Faculty of Biology, University of Latvia, Riga, Latvia
5Department of Arctic and Marine Biology, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 1.8 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Frontiers Media, 2022
Publish Date: 2023-06-22


Cuticle is the first layer protecting plants against external biotic and abiotic factors and is responsive to climatic factors as well as determined by genetic adaptations. In this study, the chemical composition of bilberry fruit cuticular wax was investigated through a latitudinal gradient from Latvia (56°N 24°E) through Finland (65°N 25°E) to northern Norway (69°N 18°E) in two seasons 2018 and 2019. Changes in the major cuticular wax compounds, including triterpenoids, fatty acids, alkanes, aldehydes, ketones, and primary alcohols, were detected by GC-MS analysis. Generally, a decreasing trend in the proportion of triterpenoids from southern to northern latitudes, accompanied with an increase in proportion of fatty acids, aldehydes, and alkanes, in bilberry fruit cuticular wax was observed. A correlation analysis between climatic factors with proportion of wax compounds indicated that temperature was the main factor affecting the cuticular wax composition in bilberries. A controlled phytotron experiment with southern and northern bilberry ecotypes confirmed the major effect of temperature on bilberry fruit cuticular wax load and composition. Elevated temperature increased wax load most in berries of northern ecotypes. The level of triterpenoids was higher, while levels of fatty acids and alkanes were lower, in wax of bilberry fruits ripened at 18°C compared to 12°C in both northern and southern ecotypes. Based on our results, it can be postulated that the predicted increase in temperature due to climate change leads to alterations in fruit cuticular wax load and composition. In northern ecotypes, the alterations were especially evident.

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Series: Frontiers in plant science
ISSN: 1664-462X
ISSN-E: 1664-462X
ISSN-L: 1664-462X
Volume: 13
Article number: 980427
DOI: 10.3389/fpls.2022.980427
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 1181 Ecology, evolutionary biology
Funding: We would like to thank I4 future doctoral program, hosted at the University of Oulu: Novel Imaging and Characterization Methods in Bio, Medical, and Environmental Research and Technology Innovations, which is the European Union’s Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Programme under the Marie Skłodowska-Curie action co-funded by international, interdisciplinary and inter-sectoral doctoral programme (grantnumber: 713606 to PT). We acknowledge the research grant from InterregNord (Natural Wax of Arctic Berries as Our Treasure – WAX project (Number: 20201089 to University of Oulu and grants: IR16-020 and RMF16-026 from Troms Fylkeskommune and NIBIO). We would like to thank NordPlant (NordForsk project #84597) for funding travel to PT for phytotron experiments in Alnarp and Tromsø. Kone Foundation is thanked for providing a funding grant (to PT).
EU Grant Number: (713606) I4FUTURE - Novel Imaging and Characterisation Methods in Bio, Medical, and Environmental Research and Technology Innovations
Dataset Reference: The original contributions presented in this study areincluded in the article/Supplementary material, furtherinquiries can be directed to the corresponding author.
Copyright information: © 2022 Trivedi, Klavins, Hykkerud, Kviesis, Elferts, Martinussen, Klavins, Karppinen, Häggman and Jaakola. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.