University of Oulu

Rolf Larsson, Antti Belinskij, Bjørn Kløve, Diana Meilutyte-Lukauskiene, Elve Lode, Eva Skarbøvik, Vytautas Akstinas; Coordination of water policies for quality and quantity: experiences from Nordic and Baltic countries. Hydrology Research 1 September 2022; 53 (9): 1166–1185. doi:

Coordination of water policies for quality and quantity : experiences from Nordic and Baltic countries

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Author: Larsson, Rolf1; Belinskij, Antti2,3; Kløve, Bjørn4;
Organizations: 1Water Resources Engineering, Lund University, Box 118, Lund 22100, Sweden
2Freshwater Centre, Finnish Environment Institute SYKE, Latokartanonkaari 11, FI-00790 Helsinki, Finland
3Law School, University of Eastern Finland, Yliopistonkatu 2, FI-80100, Joensuu, Finland
4Water, Energy and Environmental Engineering Research Unit, University of Oulu, PL 8000, FI-90014, Oulun yliopisto, Finland
5Laboratory of Hydrology, Lithuanian Energy Institute, Breslaujos g. 3, LT-44403, Kaunas, Lithuania
6Institute of Ecology, School of Natural Sciences and Health, Tallinn Univ., Uus Sadama 5, 10120, Tallinn, Estonia
7Division of Environment and Natural Resources, Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research (NIBIO), P.O. Box 115, 1431, Ås, Norway
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.7 MB)
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Language: English
Published: IWA Publishing, 2022
Publish Date: 2023-06-28


The European Union (EU) Water Framework Directive is of paramount importance for water management. According to the legal text, coordination with other directives like the Floods Directive is imperative and motivated by potential synergy effects. In this paper, the degree to which such coordination is achieved is evaluated for five Nordic and Baltic countries. The evaluation is based on legal documents, management plans, as well as on organizational structure in the five countries. The results show that the coordination between the Water Framework Directive and the Floods Directive (or flood management for Norway’s case), have been successful for Estonia and Lithuania, whereas Norway, Finland, and especially Sweden need to improve more.

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Series: Hydrology research
ISSN: 1998-9563
ISSN-E: 2224-7955
ISSN-L: 1998-9563
Volume: 53
Issue: 9
Pages: 1166 - 1185
DOI: 10.2166/nh.2022.028
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 1171 Geosciences
1172 Environmental sciences
Copyright information: © 2022 The Authors. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licence (CC BY 4.0), which permits copying, adaptation and redistribution, provided the original work is properly cited (