University of Oulu

Lapinkangas, S., Rautio, L., Kauppinen, T., Hu, T., Pesonen, J., & Lassi, U. (2022). Precipitation of potassium as hazenite from washing water of spent alkaline batteries. Chemical Engineering Journal Advances, 12, 100426.

Precipitation of potassium as hazenite from washing water of spent alkaline batteries

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Author: Lapinkangas, Suvi1; Rautio, Lasse1,2; Kauppinen, Toni1,3;
Organizations: 1University of Oulu, Research Unit of Sustainable Chemistry, P.O. Box 3000, FI-90014, Finland
2Tracegrow Oy, Teollisuustie 21, Kärsämäki, Finland
3Kokkola University Consortium Chydenius, University of Jyväskylä, Talonpojankatu 2 B, FI-67100 Kokkola, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 1 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Elsevier, 2022
Publish Date: 2023-06-28


Hazenite (KNaMg₂(PO₄)₂ × 14 H₂O), a new type of struvite mineral, was precipitated from the potassium-rich washing water of spent alkaline battery black mass. Hazenite can be used as a fertilizer, which would be an additional benefit derived from the sustainable recovery of battery materials. Precipitation experiments were performed using different pH values (9.5–12), Mg:K:PO₄ ratios ((1.0–1.5):1:(1.0–1.5)) and temperatures (10–40 °C). Based on the results, hazenite precipitated in a wide pH range under alkaline conditions. The precipitation kinetics were fast, and the purity of the hazenite was high. Overall, hazenite can be precipitated at room temperature without the addition of excess chemicals, which minimizes the consumption of chemicals and energy.

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Series: Chemical engineering journal advances
ISSN: 2666-8211
ISSN-E: 2666-8211
ISSN-L: 2666-8211
Volume: 12
Article number: 100426
DOI: 10.1016/j.ceja.2022.100426
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 116 Chemical sciences
215 Chemical engineering
Copyright information: © 2022 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (