University of Oulu

Hautala, M.K., Helander, H.M., Pokka, T.ML. et al. Recurrent febrile seizures and serum cytokines: a controlled follow-up study. Pediatr Res 93, 1574–1581 (2023).

Recurrent febrile seizures and serum cytokines : a controlled follow-up study

Saved in:
Author: Hautala, Maria K.1,2; Helander, Heli M.1,2; Pokka, Tytti M-L.1,2;
Organizations: 1PEDEGO Research Unit – Research Unit for Pediatrics, Pediatric Neurology, Pediatric Surgery, Child Psychiatry, Dermatology, Clinical Genetics, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Otorhinolaryngology and Ophthalmology, Medical Research Center Oulu (MRC Oulu), University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
2Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland
3Research Unit of Biomedicine, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
4Epilepsia Helsinki, Division of Child Neurology, Children’s Hospital, and Pediatric Research Center, Helsinki University Hospital and University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.9 MB)
Persistent link:
Language: English
Published: Springer Nature, 2022
Publish Date: 2023-06-30


Background: The role of cytokines in the pathogenesis of febrile seizures (FSs) is unclear, and information regarding cytokine production outside of FS episodes is scarce.

Methods: In our controlled follow-up study of patients with FSs, we compared the levels of 12 serum cytokines after the patients’ first FSs, during febrile episodes without FSs, after recurrent FSs, during healthy periods after FSs, and between patients and controls.

Results: Two-hundred fifty-one patients with first FS participated in the study, of whom 17 (mean age 1.6 years, SD 0.7) with recurrent FSs completed the protocol as required by the sample size calculations. The mean IL-1RA level was higher after the first FSs (2580 pg/mL, SD 1516) than during febrile episodes without FSs (1336 pg/mL, SD 1364, P = 0.006) and healthy periods after FSs (474 pg/mL, SD 901, P = 0.001). IL-1RA levels were also higher during first (2580 pg/mL) and recurrent FSs (2666 pg/mL, SD 1747) in comparison with febrile controls (746 pg/mL, SD 551) (P < 0.001 and P = 0.001, respectively), but there was no difference in the IL-1RA between febrile episodes without FSs and febrile controls.

Conclusions: Patients with FSs produce stronger inflammatory reactions during febrile episodes with FSs compared with febrile episodes without FSs and febrile controls.

see all

Series: Pediatric research
ISSN: 0031-3998
ISSN-E: 1530-0447
ISSN-L: 0031-3998
Volume: 93
Pages: 1574 - 1581
DOI: 10.1038/s41390-022-02282-7
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 3123 Gynaecology and paediatrics
Funding: M.H. and K.M. have received a grant from Arvo and Lea Ylppö Foundation and Alma och K.A. Snellman Foundation. H.H. has received a grant from the Finnish National State Grants (VTR Funding), Alma och K.A. Snellman Foundation, and Eemil Aaltonen Foundation. Open Access funding provided by University of Oulu including Oulu University Hospital.
Copyright information: © The Author(s) 2022. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit