University of Oulu

Lucas Arrais Campos, Juliana Alvares Duarte Bonini Campos, Minna Kämäräinen, Anna-Sofia Silvola, João Marôco & Timo Peltomäki (2022) Self-perception of orofacial appearance: Brazil–Finland cross-national study, Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, 80:8, 626-634, DOI: 10.1080/00016357.2022.2077432

Self-perception of orofacial appearance : Brazil–Finland cross-national study

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Author: Campos, Lucas Arrais1,2,3; Campos, Juliana Alvares Duarte Bonini4; Kämäräinen, Minna5;
Organizations: 1Faculty of Medicine and Health Technology, Tampere University, Tampere, Finland
2School of Dentistry, Sao Paulo State University (UNESP), Araraquara, Brazil
3Department of Ear and Oral Diseases, Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland
4Biological Sciences Department, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sao Paulo State University (UNESP), Araraquara, Bra
5Institute of Dentistry, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland
6Department of Oral Development and Orthodontics, Oral Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
7William James Center for Research (WJCR), University Institute of Psychological, Social, and Life Sciences (ISPA), Lisbon, Portugal
8Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Diseases, Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 2.2 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Informa, 2022
Publish Date: 2023-07-05


Objective: (i) To study the measurement invariance of Orofacial Esthetic Scale (OES) and Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics Questionnaire (PIDAQ), (ii) to compare the perception of orofacial appearance (OA) and (iii) to study the frequency of individuals who have sought or received aesthetic dental treatment between Brazil and Finland.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional observational study with snowball non-probability sample selection. Students and staff from universities in Finland and Brazil were invited to participate. Data were collected online using a demographic questionnaire, OES and PIDAQ. The samples consisted of 3636 Finns (75.0% female; age: 32.0 years) and 1468 Brazilians (72.6% female; age: 33.2 years). The frequency of receiving aesthetic dental treatment was estimated. If configurational invariance was observed, cross-national measurement invariance was verified by multigroup analysis. When measurement invariance was attested, factor scores were compared using Welch’s t-test.

Results: OES showed configurational and measurement invariance and no significant difference between the countries. Despite similarity in satisfaction with OA, 71.9% of Brazilians had received aesthetic dental treatment, while 59.4% of Finns had never sought such treatments. PIDAQ did not present configurational invariance between the countries.

Conclusion: Although there is no difference in satisfaction with OA, seeking and receiving aesthetic dental treatment is significantly greater for Brazilians. Psychosocial impact of OA is perceived differently in the studied countries.

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Series: Acta odontologica Scandinavica
ISSN: 0001-6357
ISSN-E: 1502-3850
ISSN-L: 0001-6357
Volume: 80
Issue: 8
Pages: 626 - 634
DOI: 10.1080/00016357.2022.2077432
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 313 Dentistry
Funding: This study received financial support from grant #2018/06739-1 and #2019/19590-9, São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP). This study was financed in part by the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior - Brasil (CAPES) – Finance Code 001.
Copyright information: © 2022 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group on behalf of Acta Odontologica Scandinavica Society. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives License (,which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, and is not altered, transformed, or built upon in any way.