University of Oulu

Jaekel N, Jaekel J, Fincher E and Brown CL (2022) Summer regression—the impact of summer on English learners’ reading development. Front. Educ. 7:817284. doi: 10.3389/feduc.2022.817284

Summer regression : the impact of summer on English learners’ reading development

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Author: Jaekel, Nils1; Jaekel, Julia1; Fincher, Elizabeth2;
Organizations: 1Faculty of Education and Psychology, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
2Theory and Practice in Teacher Education, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Knoxville, TN, United States
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.8 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Frontiers Media, 2022
Publish Date: 2023-07-07


Each summer, students may lose some of the academic abilities they gained over the previous school year. English learners (ELs) may be at particular risk of losing English skills over the summer, but they have been neglected in previous research. This study investigates the development of oral reading fluency (ORF) of ELs compared with native English speakers. Using the AIMSweb Reading Curriculum-Based Measurement (R-CBM) in a pre-post design, reading fluency of N = 3,280 students] n = 363/11.1% ELs vs. n = 2,917/88.9% native speakers (NS)] was assessed in a school district in the Southeastern U.S. in May (4th grade) before and September (5th grade) after the summer break. Results showed that, on average, ELs performed 23.36 points below NS after the summer break. However, native English speakers and ELs lost ORF at similar rates over the summer (β = –0.02, p = 0.281). Contradictory to our hypothesis, students who had been higher performing in the spring had more reading performance losses over the summer (β = –0.45, p < 0.001). Future studies should assess the underlying individual student characteristics and learning mechanisms in more detail in order to develop evidence-based recommendations for tailored programs that can close the achievement gap between ELs and native English speakers.

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Series: Frontiers in education
ISSN: 2504-284X
ISSN-E: 2504-284X
ISSN-L: 2504-284X
Volume: 7
Pages: 1 - 7
DOI: 10.3389/feduc.2022.817284
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 516 Educational sciences
Funding: Publication costs were funded by the Biodiverse Anthropocenes program, University of Oulu, Academy of Finland Profi6 336449.
Copyright information: © 2022 Jaekel, Jaekel, Fincher and Brown. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.