University of Oulu

Nuotio, J., Niiranen, T., Laitinen, T.T. et al. Use of antibiotics and risk of type 2 diabetes, overweight and obesity: the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study and the national FINRISK study. BMC Endocr Disord 22, 284 (2022).

Use of antibiotics and risk of type 2 diabetes, overweight and obesity : the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study and the national FINRISK study

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Author: Nuotio, Joel1,2,3,4; Niiranen, Teemu5,6,7; Laitinen, Tomi T.1,4,8;
Organizations: 1Research Centre of Applied and Preventive Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Turku, Kiinamyllynkatu 10, FIN-20520, Turku, Finland
2Centre for Population Health Research, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland
3Heart Center, Turku University Hospital and University of Turku, Turku, Finland
4Murdoch Children’s Research Institute, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
5Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland
6Department of Internal Medicine, University of Turku, Turku, Finland
7Division of Medicine, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland
8Paavo Nurmi Centre, Sports and Exercise Medicine Unit, Department of Physical Activity and Health, University of Turku, Turku, Finland
9Department of Paediatrics, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
10Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, The Royal Children’s Hospital, Parkville, Victoria, Australia
11Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland, HiLIFE, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
12Department of Pediatrics, Tampere University and Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland
13Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, University of Eastern Finland and Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio, Finland
14Department of Pediatrics, Oulu University Hospital and University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
15Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.8 MB)
Persistent link:
Language: English
Published: Springer Nature, 2022
Publish Date: 2023-07-10


Purpose: To investigate whether exposure to systemic antibiotics influences the risk of developing type 2 diabetes and overweight/obesity.

Methods: The study sample comprised 2209 (110 with incident diabetes) participants from the population-based Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study (YFS) aged 24–39 years in 2001. The exposure was national linked register data on purchased antibiotic courses between 1993 and 2001. Clinical examinations including BMI were conducted in 2001, 2007 and 2011. Participants with prevalent diabetes in 2001 were excluded. Data on type 2 diabetes was also obtained from two national registers until 2017. Data from four population-based National FINRISK studies were used for replication (N = 24,674, 1866 with incident diabetes).

Results: Prior antibiotic exposure (> 5 versus 0–1 antibiotic courses) was associated with subsequent type 2 diabetes in both YFS (OR 2.29; 95%CI 1.33–3.96) and FINRISK (HR 1.73; 95%CI 1.51–1.99). An increased risk for type 2 diabetes was observed in YFS (OR 1.043; 95%CI 1.013–1.074) and FINRISK (HR 1.022; 95%CI 1.016–1.029) per course. Exposure to antibiotics increased the risk of overweight/obesity (BMI > 25 kg/m²) after a 10-year follow-up in YFS (OR 1.043; 95%CI 1.019–1.068) and in FINRISK (OR 1.023; 95%CI 1.018–1.029) at baseline per antibiotic course. Adjustments for confounders from early life in YFS and at baseline in FINRISK, including BMI, socioeconomic status, smoking, insulin, blood pressure, and physical activity, did not appreciably alter the findings.

Conclusion: Our results show that exposure to antibiotics was associated with increased risk for future type 2 diabetes and overweight/obesity and support judicious antibiotic prescribing.

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Series: BMC endocrine disorders
ISSN: 1472-6823
ISSN-E: 1472-6823
ISSN-L: 1472-6823
Volume: 22
Issue: 1
Article number: 284
DOI: 10.1186/s12902-022-01197-y
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 3121 General medicine, internal medicine and other clinical medicine
Funding: The Young Finns Study has been financially supported by the Academy of Finland: grants 286284, 134309 (Eye), 126925, 121584, 124282, 129378 (Salve), 117787 (Gendi), and 41071 (Skidi); the Social Insurance Institution of Finland; Competitive State Research Financing of the Expert Responsibility area of Kuopio, Tampere and Turku University Hospitals (grant X51001); Juho Vainio Foundation; Paavo Nurmi Foundation; Finnish Foundation for Cardiovascular Research; Finnish Cultural Foundation; The Sigrid Juselius Foundation; Tampere Tuberculosis Foundation; Emil Aaltonen Foundation; Yrjö Jahnsson Foundation; Signe and Ane Gyllenberg Foundation; Diabetes Research Foundation of Finnish Diabetes Association; and EU Horizon 2020 (grant 755320 for TAXINOMISIS); and European Research Council (grant 742927 for MULTIEPIGEN project); Tampere University Hospital Supporting Foundation. FINRISK has been mainly funded by budgetary funds of THL and additional funding has been obtained from the Finnish Academy and several non-profit foundations. D.P.B. is supported by National Health and Medical Research Council (Australia) Senior Research Fellowship (GTN 1064629) and Investigator Grant (GTN 1175744). J.N. is supported by the Finnish Foundation for Cardiovascular Research, Juho Vainio Foundation, Yrjö Jahnsson Foundation, and Turku University Foundation. T.N. is supported by grants from the Academy of Finland (grant 321351), the Emil Aaltonen Foundation, the Paavo Nurmi Foundation, and the Finnish Medical Foundation. V.S. is supported by the Finnish Foundation for Cardiovascular Research. The funders played no role in designing or conducting the study, in the collection, management, analysis or interpretation of the data, in the preparation, review or approval of the manuscript, or in the decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
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