University of Oulu

Mishra S, Amatya SB, Salmi S, Koivukangas V, Karihtala P, Reunanen J. Microbiota and Extracellular Vesicles in Anti-PD-1/PD-L1 Therapy. Cancers. 2022; 14(20):5121.

Microbiota and extracellular vesicles in anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy

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Author: Mishra, Surbhi1; Amatya, Sajeen Bahadur1; Salmi, Sonja1;
Organizations: 1Biocenter Oulu & Cancer and Translational Medicine Research Unit, University of Oulu, 90014 Oulu, Finland
2Department of Surgery, Oulu University Hospital, University of Oulu, 90014 Oulu, Finland
3Medical Research Center Oulu, Oulu University Hospital, University of Oulu, 90014 Oulu, Finland
4Helsinki University Hospital Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Helsinki, 00029 Helsinki, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 2.8 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2022
Publish Date: 2023-07-11


Cancer is a deadly disease worldwide. In light of the requisite of convincing therapeutic methods for cancer, immune checkpoint inhibition methods such as anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy appear promising. Human microbiota have been exhibited to regulate susceptibility to cancer as well as the response to anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy. However, the probable contribution of bacterial extracellular vesicles (bEVs) in cancer pathophysiology and treatment has not been investigated much. bEVs illustrate the ability to cross physiological barriers, assemble around the tumor cells, and likely modify the tumor microenvironment (EVs). This systematic review emphasizes the correlation between cancer-associated extracellular vesicles, particularly bEVs and the efficacy of anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy. The clinical and pharmacological prospective of bEVs in revamping the contemporary treatments for cancer has been further discussed.

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Series: Cancers
ISSN: 2072-6694
ISSN-E: 2072-6694
ISSN-L: 2072-6694
Volume: 14
Issue: 20
Article number: 5121
DOI: 10.3390/cancers14205121
Type of Publication: A2 Review article in a scientific journal
Field of Science: 3122 Cancers
Copyright information: © 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (