University of Oulu

Mitas, B., Visuri, VV. & Schenk, J. Modeling the Residence Time of Metal Droplets in Slag During BOF Steelmaking. Metall Mater Trans B 54, 1938–1953 (2023).

Modeling the residence time of metal droplets in slag during BOF steelmaking

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Author: Mitas, Bernhard1,2; Visuri, Ville-Valtteri3; Schenk, Johannes1,2
Organizations: 1Montanuniversitaet Leoben, 8700, Leoben, Austria
2K1-MET GmbH, 8700, Leoben, Austria
3Process Metallurgy Research Unit, University of Oulu, 90014, Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 1 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Springer Nature, 2023
Publish Date: 2023-07-11


The ejection of metal droplets into slag due to top-blowing is characteristic of the BOF process. The residence time of the metal droplets in the slag plays a significant role in the kinetics of the metal–slag reactions. In this study, the residence time of ejected metal in slag during BOF steelmaking is investigated and various approaches, based on the blowing number theory and mass balances are compared. Previously published blowing number theories are evaluated in comparison with physically based upper and lower boundaries. The results illustrate that only some of the laboratory-scale blowing number correlations apply to industrial blowing conditions. A mathematical model is developed to predict mass fraction return rates and thus the residence time of droplets in the slag emulsion. Combined with a previously published model for ejected droplet size distribution, it is possible to predict dynamic changes in the interfacial area and mass transfer conditions for metal–slag reactions.

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Series: Metallurgical and materials transactions. B, Process metallurgy and materials processing science
ISSN: 1073-5615
ISSN-E: 1543-1916
ISSN-L: 1073-5615
Volume: 54
Issue: 4
Pages: 1938 - 1953
DOI: 10.1007/s11663-023-02808-2
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 215 Chemical engineering
Funding: The authors appreciatively acknowledge the funding support of K1-MET GmbH, a metallurgical competence center. The research program of the K1-MET competence center is supported by COMET (Competence Center for Excellent Technologies), the Austrian program for competence centers. COMET is funded by the Federal Ministry for Climate Action, Environment, Energy, Mobility, Innovation, and Technology, the Federal Ministry for Labour and Economy, the Federal States of Upper Austria, Tyrol, and Styria as well as the Styrian Business Promotion Agency (SFG) and the Standortagentur Tyrol. Furthermore, Upper Austrian Research continuously supports K1-MET. Besides the public funding from COMET, the current research work of K1-MET is partially financed by the participating scientific partner Montanuniversitaet Leoben and the industrial partners Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, RHI Magnesita GmbH, and voestalpine Stahl GmbH. The work by Assoc. Prof. Visuri was conducted within the framework of the FFS project funded by Business Finland. Open access funding provided by Montanuniversität Leoben.
Copyright information: Ó The Author(s) 2023. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit