University of Oulu

Heidi Hartikainen, Leena Ventä-Olkkonen, Marianne Kinnula, Netta Iivari, “We were proud of our idea”: How teens and teachers gained value in an entrepreneurship and making project, International Journal of Child-Computer Interaction, Volume 35, 2023, 100552, ISSN 2212-8689,

“We were proud of our idea” : how teens and teachers gained value in an entrepreneurship and making project

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Author: Hartikainen, Heidi1; Ventä-Olkkonen, Leena1; Kinnula, Marianne1;
Organizations: 1University of Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.4 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Elsevier, 2022
Publish Date: 2023-07-12


While the potential of digital fabrication, making, and entrepreneurship education for empowering children and for increasing their abilities to shape the society and our digital future have been acknowledged in the literature, these educational trends have mostly been studied separately in Child–Computer Interaction (CCI) research. Additionally, while digital fabrication and making have been discussed quite extensively in relation to the role of Design Protagonist in the CCI literature, the relevance of entrepreneurship education on this role remains quite unexplored. We combined digital fabrication, making, and entrepreneurship education in a business innovation project with teenagers at school context. Through our qualitative, interpretive analysis, where we use value co-creation as our theoretical lens, we show what kind of value was expected and gained in this collaborative endeavor. Teachers valued learning new teaching methods and the possibilities of digital fabrication. Teens appreciated the change in scenery and routine and working on digital fabrication. They indicated learning useful things about the project topics during groupwork and experienced feelings of success related to their performance and the group project. We also identify challenges hindering value creation for teachers and students: differing expectations on the roles and responsibilities of adult participants, and difficulty balancing the fun, free making activities with the entrepreneurship aspects of the project. We discuss the implications of business innovation for the Design Protagonist role of children and identify balancing acts needed when supporting children to adopt the role for driving business innovation in the future digitalized society.

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Series: International journal of child-computer interaction
ISSN: 2212-8689
ISSN-E: 2212-8697
ISSN-L: 2212-8689
Volume: 35
Article number: 100552
DOI: 10.1016/j.ijcci.2022.100552
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 113 Computer and information sciences
Funding: This project was funded by Finnish Cultural Foundation, North Ostrobothnia Regional Fund (Grant #60172251, DeMaKids) and Academy of Finland (Grant #324685 Make-a-Difference project; Grant #351584 Making sense of ‘technology protagonism’ project). This research is connected to the GenZ project, a strategic profiling project in human sciences at the University of Oulu, supported by the Academy of Finland (Grant #318930, Profi4) and the University of Oulu .
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 324685
Detailed Information: 324685 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
351584 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Copyright information: © 2022 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (