University of Oulu

Srivastava, S., Cerutti, M., Nguyen, H., Carvelli, V., Kinnunen, P., & Illikainen, M. (2023). Carbonated steel slags as supplementary cementitious materials: Reaction kinetics and phase evolution. Cement and Concrete Composites, 142, 105213.

Carbonated steel slags as supplementary cementitious materials : reaction kinetics and phase evolution

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Author: Srivastava, Sumit1,2; Cerutti, Michela1,3; Nguyen, Hoang1;
Organizations: 1Fibre and Particle Engineering Research Unit, University of Oulu, Pentti Kaiteran katu 1, 90014, Oulu, Finland
2RISE Research Institutes of Sweden AB, Infrastructure and Concrete Structures, Material Design, Brinellgatan 4, 50115, Borås, Sweden
3Department A.B.C., Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo Da Vinci 32, 20133, Milan, Italy
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 7.6 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Elsevier, 2023
Publish Date: 2023-08-01


With increasing interest in utilizing metallurgical slags for mineral carbonation, there is a need to find applications for carbonated slags. The scope of this study is to explore the utilization potential of carbonated steel furnace slags (SFS) as supplementary cementitious materials (SCM) to produce low-CO₂ cement-based materials. Two different types of SFS are studied with comparable amounts of major oxides but significantly different mineral phase compositions. In the first phase of the study, several parameters that affect the CO₂ uptake during mineral carbonation are considered (temperature, CO₂ pressure, particle size, and duration) for the two slags namely, basic oxygen furnace slag (BOFS) and desulfurized slag (DeSS). Among the two slags, the DeSS exhibited significantly higher degrees of carbonation than BOFS, and the higher carbonation of DeSS is attributed to the presence of Ca as Ca(OH)₂ rather than Ca–Si in BOFS. For both the slags, increase in temperature and CO₂ pressure generally led to increase in the degree of carbonation. In the second phase of the study, 30 wt% of white Portland cement (WPC) was replaced by carbonated slags (used as SCM) in the cement mixture. The cement mixture with the BOFS carbonated at 60 °C and 1 bar CO₂ pressure, as SCM, exhibited compressive strength comparable with that of WPC. Higher degrees and rates of carbonation under different conditions appears to have reduced their reactivities as SCM.

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Series: Cement & concrete composites
ISSN: 0958-9465
ISSN-E: 1873-393X
ISSN-L: 0958-9465
Volume: 142
Article number: 105213
DOI: 10.1016/j.cemconcomp.2023.105213
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 212 Civil and construction engineering
216 Materials engineering
Funding: S. Srivastava and Mirja Illikainen gratefully acknowledges Academy of Finland for their financial support through GEOMINS project [grant #319676: Steps towards the use of mine tailings in geopolymer materials: reactivity, CO2 sequestration and heavy metal stabilization]. H. Nguyen and P. Kinnunen are grateful for the financial support from the University of Oulu and The Academy of Finland grant# 326291, as well as the Academy of Finland project 329477.
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 319676
Detailed Information: 319676 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
329477 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Copyright information: © 2023 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (