University of Oulu

Soroya, S.H., Al-Obaydi, L.H. and Rehman, M.A. (2023), "Digital immigrants’ attitudes toward e-reading in Iraq and Pakistan", The Electronic Library, Vol. 41 No. 4, pp. 349-366.

Digital immigrants’ attitudes toward e-reading in Iraq and Pakistan

Saved in:
Author: Soroya, Saira Hanif1,2; Al-Obaydi, Liqaa Habeb3; Rehman, Mohsin Abdur4
Organizations: 1College of Health Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, kentucky, USA
2University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan
3College of Education for Human Science, University of Diyala, Baquba, Iraq
4Department of Marketing, Management and International Business, Oulu Business School, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: accepted version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.5 MB)
Persistent link:
Language: English
Published: Emerald, 2023
Publish Date: 2023-08-04


Purpose: In the digital transformation race, the older generation, called digital immigrants (generation X), encounter various obstacles. This study aims to investigate the e-reading adoption and cross-cultural differences among generation X.

Design/methodology/approach: This study collected survey-based data from generation X e-readers in Iraq and Pakistan (Pakistan, N = 235; Iraq, N = 251). Structural equation modeling and multigroup analysis (MGA) were used to arrive at a statistical decision regarding the hypotheses and the study’s primary objectives.

Findings: Three hypotheses (H2, H3 and H8) were supported by both data sets. However, there is positive variance based on MGA for two hypotheses (H1 and H3) where the Pakistani sample’s path coefficients are greater than the Iraqi sample’s path coefficients. In contrast, there is negative variance based on MGA for two hypotheses (H7 and H9) where the Iraqi sample’s path coefficients are greater than the Pakistani sample’s path coefficients. Finally, these distinctions are examined, along with a few potential research topics.

Originality/value: Although there is a plethora of literature on digital immigrants and technology adoption in general, and specifically on e-reading uptake. Research on e-reading adoption in a global learning context is still lacking. Therefore, this study examines the e-reading behavior of digital immigrants from two developing countries (Iraq and Pakistan) and identifies significant cross-cultural differences in e-reading adoption.

see all

Series: Electronic library
ISSN: 0264-0473
ISSN-E: 1758-616X
ISSN-L: 0264-0473
Volume: 41
Issue: 4
Pages: 349 - 366
DOI: 10.1108/EL-09-2022-0217
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 516 Educational sciences
Copyright information: © Emerald Publishing Limited. This AAM is provided for your own personal use only. It may not be used for resale, reprinting, systematic distribution, emailing, or for any other commercial purpose without the permission of the publisher.