University of Oulu

Pentti Kaikkonen, Sumit Ghosh, Mahesh Somani, Jukka Kömi, Nanostructured bainite transformation characteristics in medium-carbon steel subjected to ausforming and isothermal holding below martensite start temperature, Journal of Materials Research and Technology, Volume 23, 2023, Pages 466-490, ISSN 2238-7854,

Nanostructured bainite transformation characteristics in medium-carbon steel subjected to ausforming and isothermal holding below martensite start temperature

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Author: Kaikkonen, Pentti1; Ghosh, Sumit1; Somani, Mahesh1;
Organizations: 1Materials and Mechanical Engineering, Centre for Advanced Steels Research, University of Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 15.4 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Elsevier, 2023
Publish Date: 2023-08-09


The influence of martensite on the transformation rate of bainite as well as enhancement of various properties is well established, yet the combined influence of both the primary martensite and low temperature ausforming below the martensite start temperature (MS) on the characteristics of microstructural evolution comprising ultrafine/nanostructured bainite, martensite and retained austenite (RA) in medium C steels has not been unambiguously clarified. A series of physical simulation experiments involving isothermal holding at various temperatures below and above the MS was conducted with or without prior ausforming (∼0.5 strain, 0.5 s⁻¹ strain rate) in order to assess the influence of ausforming on subsequent transformation behaviour. The results suggest that when ausforming was applied above MS, it not only accelerated the bainite transformation kinetics, but also initiated strain-induced bainite/martensite formation. At temperatures below MS, prior ausforming did hinder the onset of bainite transformation, but the transformation rates were faster suggesting the strain-induced acceleration in kinetics. Due to a remarkable refinement of the bainitic structure achieved by prior ausforming in samples held below MS, the Vickers hardness improved appreciably unlike in the case of samples held above MS. Ausforming promoted significant refinement and uniformity of the bainitic plates, and also the orientations of the plates became more randomized. The dislocation density of RA decreased with the reduced content of secondary (fresh) martensite that formed during final cooling to room temperature.

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Series: Journal of materials research and technology
ISSN: 2238-7854
ISSN-E: 2214-0697
ISSN-L: 2238-7854
Volume: 23
Pages: 466 - 490
DOI: 10.1016/j.jmrt.2023.01.002
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 216 Materials engineering
Funding: The study received support from the Academy of Finland under Genome of Steel (Profi3) project #311934. Part of the work was carried out with the support of the Centre for Material Analysis, University of Oulu, Finland.
Copyright information: © 2023 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (