University of Oulu

Muthusamy Saranya, Janne T. Koivisto, Ana C.M. Carvalho, Fernando Sato, Andrea Lassenberger, Lionel Porcar, Baleeswaraiah Muchharla, Saikat Talapatra, Birgitte H. McDonagh, Lauriane Janssen, Olli Pitkänen, Minna Kellomäki, Krisztian Kordas, Gabriela S. Lorite, Aligned multi-walled carbon nanotube-embodied hydrogel via low magnetic field: A strategy for engineering aligned injectable scaffolds, Composites Part B: Engineering, Volume 248, 2023, 110398, ISSN 1359-8368,

Aligned multi-walled carbon nanotube-embodied hydrogel via low magnetic field : a strategy for engineering aligned injectable scaffolds

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Author: Saranya, Muthusamy1; Koivisto, Janne T.1; Carvalho, Ana C. M.2;
Organizations: 1Microelectronics Research Unit, University of Oulu, Pentti Kaiteran Katu 1, 90014, Oulu, Finland
2Departmento de Ciências Naturais, Universidade Federal de São João Del-Rei, Praça Dom Helvécio, 74, Fábricas, São João, Del-Rei, MG, 36301-160, Brazil
3Departmento de Fisica, Instituto de Ciências Exatas, Campus Universitário, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, MG, 36036-900, Brazil
4Institut Laue-Langevin, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, 38042, Grenoble, France
5Department of Physics, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL, 62901, USA
6Biotechnology and Nanomedicine, SINTEF Industry, Trondheim, Norway
7BioMediTech, Tampere University, Korkeakoulunkatu 3, 33720, Tampere, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 6.5 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Elsevier, 2022
Publish Date: 2023-08-09


Injectable scaffolds are a promising strategy to restore and regenerate damaged and diseased tissues. They require minimally invasive procedure and allow the formation of an in-situ structure of any shape. However, the formation of 3D in-situ structure with aligned morphologies using a method which could be easily transferred to clinical settings remains a challenge. Herein, the rational design of an aligned injectable hydrogel-based scaffold via remote-induced alignment is reported. Carboxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (cMWCNT) are aligned into hydrogel via low magnetic field. The uniform dispersion and alignment of cMWCNT into the hydrogel are clearly demonstrated by small angle neutron scattering. The obtained aligned cMWCNT-embodied hydrogel is stable over 7 days at room temperature and as well at body temperature (i.e. 37 °C). As unique approach, the formation of MWCNT-hydrogel composite is investigated combining rheology with molecular dynamic and quantum mechanical calculations. The increase of MWCNT concentration into the hydrogel decreases the total energy promoting structural stabilization and increase of stiffness. The remote aligning of injectable hydrogel-based scaffold opens up horizons in the engineering of functional tissues which requires specific cell orientation.

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Series: Composites. Part B, Engineering
ISSN: 1359-8368
ISSN-E: 1879-1069
ISSN-L: 1359-8368
Volume: 248
Article number: 110398
DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesb.2022.110398
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 213 Electronic, automation and communications engineering, electronics
216 Materials engineering
221 Nanotechnology
Funding: This work received funding from Academy of Finland (#317437 and #320090) and as well from European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (FILL2030 project/GA #731096 and RESTORE project/GA #814558). This work benefited from the use of the SasView application, originally developed under NSF award DMR-0520547. SasView contains code developed with funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the SINE2020 project, grant agreement No 654000. This work received financial support from the Brazilian Research Council CNPq, CAPES, FAPEMIG, and FINEP.
EU Grant Number: (814558) RESTORE - User-centred smart nanobiomaterial-based 3D matrices for chondral repair
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 317437
Detailed Information: 317437 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
320090 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Copyright information: © 2022 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (