University of Oulu

Wang Y, Hietaniemi M, Välikangas J, Hu T, Tynjälä P, Lassi U. Effects of Lithium Source and Content on the Properties of Li-Rich Layered Oxide Cathode Materials. ChemEngineering. 2023; 7(1):15.

Effects of lithium source and content on the properties of Li-rich layered oxide cathode materials

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Author: Wang, Yufan1; Hietaniemi, Marianna1; Välikangas, Juho1,2;
Organizations: 1Research Unit of Sustainable Chemistry, University of Oulu, 90014 Oulu, Finland
2Kokkola University Consortium Chydenius, University of Jyväskyla, 67100 Kokkola, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 9.7 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2023
Publish Date: 2023-08-10


Lithium-rich layered oxide (LLO) are considered high-capacity cathode materials for next-generation lithium-ion batteries. In this study, LLO cathode materials were synthesized via the hydroxide coprecipitation method followed by a two-step lithiation process using different lithium contents and lithium sources. The effects of lithium content and lithium source on structure and electrochemical performance were investigated. This study demonstrated the clear impact of Li/TM ratio on electrochemical performance. Lower Li/TM ratio reduced the irreversible capacity loss in the first cycle and provided better cycling stability among all samples. The best results exhibited an initial discharge capacity of 279.65 mAh g⁻¹ and reached a discharge capacity of 231.9 mAh g⁻¹ (82.9% capacity retention) after 30 cycles. The sample using Li₂CO₃ as lithium source exhibits better electrochemical performance than the sample using LiOH as lithium source. Therefore, it is important to choose the appropriate lithium source and optimal lithium content for improving structural properties and electrochemical performance of LLO.

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Series: ChemEngineering
ISSN: 2305-7084
ISSN-E: 2305-7084
ISSN-L: 2305-7084
Volume: 7
Issue: 1
Article number: 15
DOI: 10.3390/chemengineering7010015
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 116 Chemical sciences
Funding: This research was funded by Business Finland for research funding in 2021–2024 (University of Oulu, BATCircle2.0, Dnro 44612/31/2020).
Copyright information: © 2023 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (