University of Oulu

O. Seppälä, A. Pohjonen, J. Mendonça, V. Javaheri, R. Podor, H. Singh, J. Larkiola, In-situ SEM characterization and numerical modelling of bainite formation and impingement of a medium- carbon, low-alloy steel, Materials & Design, Volume 230, 2023, 111956, ISSN 0264-1275,

In-situ SEM characterization and numerical modelling of bainite formation and impingement of a medium- carbon, low-alloy steel

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Author: Seppälä, O.1; Pohjonen, A.1; Mendonça, J.2,3;
Organizations: 1Materials and Mechanical Engineering, University of Oulu, Oulu 90014, Finland
2ICSM, Univ Montpellier, CNRS, CEA, ENSCM, Marcoule, France
3NewTEC Scientific, Caveirac, France
4Nano and Molecular Systems Research Unit, University of Oulu, Oulu 90014, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 7.8 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Elsevier, 2023
Publish Date: 2023-08-11


A novel in-situ scanning electron microscope (SEM) characterization technique for observing phase transformation is developed and its results studied and compared to well-founded experimental ex-situ methods as well as numerical modelling of bainite formation. Phase transformation kinetics are compared between the in-situ SEM, dilatometry test as well as mean field and Cellular Automata (CA) models. Microstructural evolution during phase transformation is compared between in-situ SEM, ex-situ EBSD and CA model results. The in-situ method allows for direct observation of bainite sheaf growth and impingement. The in-situ results in combination with EBSD data can be used to parameterize the CA model sheaf nucleation and growth equations.

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Series: Materials & design
ISSN: 0264-1275
ISSN-E: 1873-4197
ISSN-L: 0264-1275
Volume: 230
Article number: 111956
DOI: 10.1016/j.matdes.2023.111956
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 216 Materials engineering
Funding: Financial assistance of Business Finland, project FOSSA- Fossil-Free Steel Applications, is gratefully acknowledged. The funding of this research activity under the auspices of Genome of Steel (Profi3) project through grant #311934 by the Academy of Finland is gratefully acknowledged. Authors would like to thank Jane ja Aatos Erkon säätiö (JAES) and Tiina ja Antti Herlinin säätiö (TAHS) for their financial supports on Advanced Steels for Green Planet project. The authors also acknowledge the valuable scientific and technical input and knowhow to the research by M.Sc. Juha Uusitalo from the laboratory of Materials and Mechanical Engineering at the University of Oulu. Vahid Javaheri would also like to thank Jenny and Antti Wihuri Foundation for the personal grant and financial support.
Copyright information: © 2023 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (