Wolke, D., Baumann, N., Jaekel, J., Pyhälä, R., Heinonen, K., Räikkönen, K., Sorg, C. and Bilgin, A. (2023), The association of early regulatory problems with behavioral problems and cognitive functioning in adulthood: two cohorts in two countries. J Child Psychol Psychiatr, 64: 876-885. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.13742
The association of early regulatory problems with behavioral problems and cognitive functioning in adulthood : two cohorts in two countries
|Author:||Wolke, Dieter1,2; Baumann, Nicole3,4; Jäkel, Julia1,5;|
1Department of Psychology, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
3Department of Health Sciences, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK
4Turner Institute for Brain and Mental Health, School of Psychology Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
5Psychology, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
6Maternity and Child Health Clinics, City of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
7Psychology/Welfare Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Tampere University, Tampere, Finland
8Department of Psychology and Logopedics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
9Department of Neuroradiology and Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Munich, Germany
10Department of Psychiatry, Klinikum Rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Munich, Germany
11TUM-NIC Neuroimaging Center Technische Universität München, Munich, Germany
12School of Psychology, University of Kent, Canterbury, UK
|Online Access:||PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.5 MB)|
|Persistent link:|| http://urn.fi/urn:nbn:fi-fe2023081194904
John Wiley & Sons,
|Publish Date:|| 2023-08-11
Background: Regulatory problems (RPs; excessive crying, sleeping, or feeding difficulties) that co-occur (i.e., multiple) or are persistent have been associated with cognitive and behavioral problems in childhood. However, it remains unknown if multiple or persistent RPs are associated with cognitive and behavioral problems in adulthood.
Methods: This large prospective longitudinal study (N = 759) was conducted in two cohorts in Germany (N = 342) and Finland (N = 417). RPs were assessed at 5, 20, and 56 months via the same standardized parental interviews and neurological examinations. In young adulthood, questionnaires were used to assess behavioral problems. Cognitive functioning was assessed with IQ tests. We examined the effects of multiple or persistent RPs on the outcomes via analysis of covariance tests and logistic regression controlled for the influence of cohort.
Results: Of 163 participants with RPs, 89 had multiple and 77 had persistent RPs. Adults who had early multiple or persistent RPs (N = 151) reported more internalizing (p = .001), externalizing (p = .020), and total behavioral problems (p = .001), and, specifically, more depressive (p = .012), somatic (p = .005), avoidant personality (p < .001), and antisocial personality problems (p = .006) than those who never had RPs (N = 596). Participants with multiple or persistent RPs were more likely to receive any ADHD diagnoses (p = .017), particularly of hyperactive/impulsive subtype (p = .032). In contrast, there were no associations between multiple or persistent RPs and IQ scores in young adulthood.
Conclusions: The results indicate long-lasting associations between multiple or persistent RPs and behavioral problems. Thus, screening for early RPs could help to identify children who are at risk for later behavioral problems.
Journal of child psychology and psychiatry
|Pages:||876 - 885|
|Type of Publication:||
A1 Journal article – refereed
|Field of Science:||
This study was supported by grants PKE24, JUG14, 01EP9504 and 01ER0801 from the German Federal Ministry of Education and Science (BMBF), and by the Academy of Finland programme grants. The analyses were supported bygrant DFG SCHM 3045/2-1 from the German Research Foundation (DFG).
© 2022 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.