University of Oulu

Hunt JD, Zakeri B, Nascimento A, de Jesus Pacheco DA, Patro ER, Đurin B, Pereira MG, Filho WL, Wada Y. Isothermal Deep Ocean Compressed Air Energy Storage: An Affordable Solution for Seasonal Energy Storage. Energies. 2023; 16(7):3118.

Isothermal deep ocean compressed air energy storage : an affordable solution for seasonal energy storage

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Author: Hunt, Julian David1; Zakeri, Behnam1; Nascimento, Andreas2;
Organizations: 1International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), A-2361 Laxenburg, Austria
2Institute of Mechanical Engineering, Federal University of Itajuba (UNIFEI), Av. BPS n. 1303, Itajubá 37500-903, Brazil
3Department of Business Development and Technology, Aarhus University, Birk Centerpark 15, 8001/1301, 7400 Herning, Denmark
4Water, Energy, and Environmental Engineering Research Unit, University of Oulu, 90570 Oulu, Finland
5Department of Civil Engineering, University North, 48000 Koprivnica, Croatia
6Electrical Power Research Center, Eletrobras, Av. Horácio Macedo, 354, Rio de Janeiro 21941-911, Brazil
7Faculty of Life Sciences, Hamburg University of Applied Sciences, 20999 Hamburg, Germany
8Climate and Livability Initiative, Center for Desert Agriculture, Biological and Environmental Science and Engineering Division, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal 23955-6900, Saudi Arabia
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 5.7 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2023
Publish Date: 2023-08-14


There is a significant energy transition in progress globally. This is mainly driven by the insertion of variable sources of energy, such as wind and solar power. To guarantee that the supply of energy meets its demand, energy storage technologies will play an important role in integrating these intermittent energy sources. Daily energy storage can be provided by batteries. However, there is still no technology that can provide weekly, monthly and seasonal energy storage services where pumped hydro storage is not a viable solution. Herein, we introduce an innovative energy storage proposal based on isothermal air compression/decompression and storage of the compressed air in the deep sea. Isothermal deep ocean compressed air energy storage (IDO-CAES) is estimated to cost from 1500 to 3000 USD/kW for installed capacity and 1 to 10 USD/kWh for energy storage. IDO-CAES should complement batteries, providing weekly, monthly and seasonal energy storage cycles in future sustainable energy grids, particularly in coastal areas, islands and offshore and floating wind power plants, as well as deep-sea mining activities.

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Series: Energies
ISSN: 1996-1073
ISSN-E: 1996-1073
ISSN-L: 1996-1073
Volume: 16
Issue: 7
Article number: 3118
DOI: 10.3390/en16073118
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 1171 Geosciences
218 Environmental engineering
Copyright information: © 2023 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (